Sensory transmission in the gastrointestinal tract

Image The gastrointestinal (GI) tract must balance ostensibly opposite functions. On the one hand, it must undertake the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients. At the same time, the GI tract must protect itself from potential harmful antigenic and pathogenic material. Central to these processes is the ability to sense the mechanical and chemical environment in the gut wall and lumen in order to orchestrate the appropriate response that facilitates nutrient assimilation or the rapid expulsion through diarrhoea and/or vomiting. In this respect, the GI tract is richly endowed with sensory elements that monitor  thegut environment. Enteric neurones provide one source of such sensory innervation and... Read More

CT of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Principles and Interpretation

Image The experience accumulated in daily abdominal CT scanning and CT evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions has generated helpful technical guidelines and some reliable principles of interpretatlon. These general principles are briefly discussed in this review, and the importance of performing a CT examination that is adequate for the detection and evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions is stressed. CT features useful in difterentiating benign from malignant lesions, limitations and pftfalls in CT interpretstion, overlap in the CT appearance, and classical CT features leading to specific diagnoses are described and illustrated. Although CT is established as one of the most important techniques for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, it should be ... Read More

Association of Cardiac Injury With Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China

Image IMPORTANCE Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide since December 2019. However, information on cardiac injury in patients affected by COVID-19 is limited. OBJECTIVE To explore the association between cardiac injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cohort study was conducted from January 20, 2020, to February 10, 2020, in a single center at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; the final date of follow-up was February 15, 2020. All consecutive inpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in this study.... Read More

A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19

Image Purpose: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern. As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical treatment, although it is much needed for patient contracting the severe form of the disease. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding chlo￾roquine for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and three trial Registries were searched for studies on the use of chloroquine in pa￾tients with COVID-19. Results: We included six articles (one narrative letter, one in-vitro study, one editorial, expert consensus paper, two national guideline documents) and 23 ongoing clinical... Read More

Energy Management for Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

Image Portable embedded computing systems require energy autonomy. This is achieved by batteries serving as a dedicated energy source. The requirement of portability places severe restrictions on size and weight, which in turn limits the amount of energy that is continuously available to maintain system operability. For these reasons, efficient energy utilization has become one of the key challenges to the designer of battery-powered embedded computing systems.In this paper, we first present a novel analytical battery model, which can be used for the battery lifetime estimation. The high quality of the proposed model is demonstrated with measurements and simulations. Using this... Read More

Design of a Solar-Harvesting Circuit for Batteryless Embedded Systems

Image The limited battery lifetime of modern embedded systems and mobile devices necessitates frequent battery recharging or replacement. Solar energy and small-size photovoltaic (PV) systems are attractive solutions to increase the autonomy of embedded and personal devices attempting to achieve perpetual operation. We present a batteryless solar-harvesting circuit that is tailored to the needs of low-power applications. The harvester performs maximum-power-point tracking of solar energy collection under nonstationary light conditions, with high efficiency and low energy cost exploiting miniaturized PV modules. We characterize the performance of the circuit by means of simulation and extensive testing under various charging and discharging conditions.... Read More

A Therapy to Live By: Public Health, the Self and Nationalism in the Practice of a North Indian Yoga Society

Image In this article I focus on the relationship between concepts of self and health in modern North India. Drawing on field research in a popular yoga society, I argue that yoga therapy, as practiced by the Bharatiya Yog Sansthan of Delhi, provides a reconceptualization of what can be meant by public health. Using studies that challenge both the essentialist and epistemologi￾cal facticity of the self, I show how the discourse and practice of yoga is implicated in, and derived from, a complex search for self definition in terms of health; health which is conceived of as a public regimen that... Read More

Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study

Image Fifty three patients with asthma underwent training for two weeks in an integrated set of yoga exercises, including breathing exercises, suryanamaskar, yogasana (physical postures), pranayama (breath slowing techniques), dhyana (meditation), and a devotional session, and were told to practise these exercises for 65 minutes daily. They were then compared with a  controlgroup of 53 patients with asthma matched for age,sex, and type and severity of asthma, who continued to take their usual drugs. There was a significantly greater improvement in the group who practised yoga in the weekly number of attacks of asthma, scores for drug treatment, and peak flow... Read More

Use of Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, and Yoga Practices With Low-Income and/or Uninsured Patients With Depression and/or Anxiety

Image This pilot study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness practices, including self-compassion and yoga, on depression and/or anxiety in uninsured and/or low-income patients. Design: The design was repeated measures with one group. Method: Patients received 8 weeks of mindfulness training including self-compassion and yoga. Depression and anxiety symptoms, self-compassion, and psychological well-being were measured four times. Findings: Interventions were effective in helping uninsured and low-income patients reduce depression and/or anxiety symptoms. Conclusion: This study may have implications for a cost-effective treatment for these disorders. The findings from this study can provide useful information to health care providers. ... Read More

Journal of Physics Research and Application

Image Physics from ancient greek means 'knowledge of nature', is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century these natural... Read More

Journal of Trauma and Rehabilitation on depression

Image Journal of Trauma and Rehabilitation is a peer reviewed journal that focuses on the advancements in the research of Traumatic sciences and its medical rehabilitation. This Journal considers almost all aspects of research related to trauma sciences, psychiatry and its rehabilitation methods from all countries. The longer we live, the more inevitable it is that we will experience trauma. Trauma is the response to a deeply distressing or disturbing event that overwhelms an individual’s ability to cope, causes feelings of helplessness, diminishes their sense of self and their ability to feel the full range of emotions and experiences. It does... Read More

Journal of Immunological Techniques & Infectious Diseases now accepting articles

Image We are happy to introduce you our journal which is a peer reviewed academic journal (ISSN NO: 2329-9541) which aims to publish the articles that makes a significant contribution in advancing knowledge for immunological application in the treatment of various infectious diseases. Our Journal includes all major themes pertaining to Immunity, Immunization techniques, Vaccination, Epidemology and treatment of infectious diseases. The journal accepts almost all types of write-ups like research articles, reviews, case reports, commentary, letter to the editor, mini review, opinion, short communication, book review, editorials etc. On the behalf of Editorial in Chief we are... Read More

Pharmaceutics & Drug Delivery Research

Image Pharmaceutics & Drug Delivery Research is a subscription based journal that provides a range of options to purchase our articles and also permits unlimited Internet Access to complete Journal content. It accepts research, review papers, online letters to the editors & brief comments on previously published articles or other relevant findings in SciTechnol. Articles submitted by authors are evaluated by a group of peer review experts in the field and ensures that the published articles are of high quality, reflect solid scholarship in their fields, and that the information they contain is accurate and reliable. The journal accepts almost all... Read More

Shockwave therapy.

Image Shockwave therapy for painful disorders is an inexpensive, non-surgical treatment. Learn more about symptoms, medical results, scientific research and experience. Shockwave therapy is a common procedure used to treat shoulder trauma, chronic Achilles tendonitis, plantar fasciitis, tendinopathy of the elbow and myofascial syndrome (muscle pain) chronic levels. Accepting paper regarding field of physiotherapy you can submit your submission here: You can also Email us: For more information check the website Read More

Charcot Marie Tooth.

Image Specificity. Neurology: Neurology. Charcot – Marie – Tooth disease (CMT) is a peripheral nervous system's inherited motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by a gradual loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation in various parts of the body. A group of hereditary disorders in the arms and legs which harm the nerves. Charcot-Marie-Tooth is a degenerative nerve condition usually arising in puberty or early adulthood. Symptoms include muscle fatigue, reduced muscle strength, decreased sensitivity, hammer toes and high arches. Physiotherapy, and physical therapy are the primary therapies. Medication has the potential to reduce discomfort. Share your comments on topic Email us:... Read More

Activation energy.

Image Activation energy can be defined as the magnitude of the potential barrier (sometimes referred to as the energy barrier) that separates minima from the potential energy surface of the initial and final thermodynamic state. In order to proceed at a reasonable rate for a chemical reaction or division, the system temperature should be sufficiently high so that there is a significant number of molecules with translational energy equal to or greater than the activation energy. In joules per mole (J / mol), kilojoules per mole (kJ / mol), or kilocalories per mole (kcal / mol), the activation energy ( Ea)... Read More

Serum used in numerous diagnostic tests

Image Blood Serum is the fluid and solute component of blood which does not play a role in clotting. It may be defined as blood plasma without fibrinogens. Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting; all electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, hormones; and any exogenous substances (e.g., drugs or microorganisms). Serum does not contain white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), platelets, or clotting factors. The study of serum is serology. Serum is used in numerous diagnostic tests as well as blood typing. Measuring the concentration of various molecules can be useful for many applications, such as determining the therapeutic... Read More

Reverse transcriptases are used by retroviruses

Image A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptases are used by retroviruses to replicate their genomes, by retrotransposon mobile genetic elements to proliferate within the host genome, by eukaryotic cells to extend the telomeres at the ends of their linear chromosomes, and by some non-retroviruses such as the hepatitis B virus, a member of the Hepadnaviridae, which are dsDNA-RT viruses. Retroviral RT has three sequential biochemical activities: RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity, ribonuclease H (RNAse H), and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. Collectively, these activities enable... Read More


Image In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks. There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them. In chemical compounds, polymerization can occur via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to the functional groups present in the reactants and their inherent steric effects. In more straightforward polymerizations, alkenes form polymers through relatively simple radical reactions; in contrast, reactions involving substitution at a carbonyl group require more complex synthesis due to the way in which reactants polymerize.Alkanes can... Read More

Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with abundant cytoplasm

Image Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, are white blood cells that originate in the bone marrow and secrete large quantities of proteins called antibodies in response to being presented specific substances called antigens. These antibodies are transported from the plasma cells by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system to the site of the target antigen (foreign substance), where they initiate its neutralization or destruction. B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modeled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with abundant cytoplasm and a characteristic appearance on light... Read More

Nucleotides play a central role in metabolism

Image Nucleotides are molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate group. They are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.They are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three sub unit molecules: a nitrogenous base (also known as nucleobase), a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate group consisting of one to three phosphates. The four nitrogenous bases present in DNA... Read More

Neuroimmunology combining Neuroscience and Immunology

Image Neuroimmunology is a field combining neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system. Neuroimmunologists seek to better understand the interactions of these two complex systems during development, homeostasis, and response to injuries. A long-term goal of this rapidly developing research area is to further develop our understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases, some of which have no clear etiology. In doing so, neuroimmunology contributes to development of new pharmacological treatments for several neurological conditions. Many types of interactions involve both the nervous and immune systems including the physiological functioning of the... Read More

Mutagen produces mutations in the DNA

Image In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens, although not always necessarily so. All mutagens have characteristic mutational signatures with some chemicals becoming mutagenic through cellular processes. Not all mutations are caused by mutagens: so-called "spontaneous mutations" occur due to spontaneous hydrolysis, errors in DNA replication, repair and recombination. Mutagens can cause changes to the DNA and are therefore genotoxic. They can... Read More

Tracheostomy Care Task Force for Noncritical Care Tracheostomized Patients

Image To determine the impact of an intensivist lead tracheostomy care team on the number of successful decannulations in non-critically ill patients and the time required for such decannulations and discharge from the hospital. Methods. Following the introduction of a multidisciplinary tracheostomy care task force, data was collected prospectively from July to December 2009. Matching control data was collected retrospectively from January to June 2009. Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney Utest were used to compare the differences in study variables with an α of 0.05. Results. A total of 44 and 47 patients with percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) were discharged from the ICU pre-... Read More


Image A gene gun or biolistic particle delivery system is a device used to deliver exogenous DNA (transgenes), RNA, or protein to cells. By coating particles of a heavy metal with a gene of interest and firing these micro-projectiles into cells using mechanical force, an integration of desired genetic information can be induced into cells. The technique involved with such micro-projectile delivery of DNA is often referred to as biolistics. This device is able to transform almost any type of cell and is not limited to the transformation of the nucleus; it can also transform organelles, including plastids and mitochondria. BIOLISTIC CONSTRUCT DESIGN Biolistic transformation involves the integration of a functional fragment of DNA—known as a DNA... Read More


Image A bio-battery is an energy storing device that is powered by organic compounds, usually being glucose, such as the glucose in human blood. When enzymes in human bodies break down glucose, several electrons and protons are released. Therefore, by using enzymes to break down glucose, bio-batteries directly receive energy from glucose. These batteries then store this energy for later use. This concept is almost identical to how both plants and many animals obtain energy.  WORKING OF BIOBATTERY Bio-batteries consist of an anode, cathode, separator and electrolyte with each component layered on top of another. Anodes and cathodes are the positive and negative areas on a battery that allow electrons to flow in... Read More

Aquatic physiotherapy.

Image Aquatic therapy refers to water-borne therapies and activities for relaxation, wellness, physical rehabilitation and other medical gain. A certified aquatic therapist usually gives a person who is undergoing care in a heated therapy pool constant attendance. The methods used in aquatic therapy include Aqua Running, Bad Ragaz Ring Method, Burdenko Method and other types of aquatic bodywork. Which include neurological conditions, spine pain, musculoskeletal pain, postoperative orthopedic rehabilitation, developmental disabilities, and pressure ulcers. It refers to water-based therapies or therapeutic purpose exercises particularly for relaxation, wellness, and physical rehabilitation. Treatments and exercises are performed while the water is floating, partially... Read More

Angelman disorder.

Image Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disease that affects the nervous system most of all. Symptoms include a small head with a distinctive facial appearance, serious intellectual disability, cognitive disability, speech difficulties, and difficulties with balance with movement, hallucinations, and issues with sleep. Children tend to have a happy personality and have a special interest in water. The symptoms are usually noticeable within a year. Angelman syndrome is caused by a lack of function of a part of the chromosome 15 inherited from a mother of a person. Most of the time, this is due to the deletion or mutation... Read More

Science of calorimeter.

Image Calorimetry is the science or act of calculating changes in a body's state variables in order to extract the heat transfer associated with changes in its condition attributable, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under defined constraints. Calorimetry calculates the heat produced by living organisms by measuring either their production of carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste (often ammonia in aquatic or terrestrial organisms) or their consumption of oxygen. Comment your views through Email: We are accepting Submission regarding the chemistry field directly online For more information check our website you can also apply... Read More

Fractures of the Clavicle

Image Recent studies favor surgical management of displaced clavicle fractures. Displacement is measured using anterior-posterior (AP) X-rays. Since displacement can occur in all three dimensions, however, standard methods of evaluation can be difficult and inaccurate. This study was conducted to determine the X-ray angle that provides the most accurate assessment. Nine CT scans of acute displaced clavicle fractures were analyzed with AmiraDev imaging software. 3D measurements for degrees of shortening and fracture displacement of the fracture clavicle were taken. Using a segmentation and manipulation module, five digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) mimicking AP X-rays were created for every CT, with each DDR... Read More

Flow cytometry

Image Flow cytometry (FCM) is a technique used to detect and measure physical and chemical characteristics of a population of cells or particles.In this process, a sample containing cells or particles is suspended in a fluid and injected into the flow cytometer instrument. The sample is focused to ideally flow one cell at a time through a laser beam, where the light scattered is characteristic to the cells and their components. Cells are often labeled with fluorescent markers so light is absorbed and then emitted in a band of wavelengths. Tens of thousands of cells can be quickly examined and the data gathered are processed... Read More


Image SDS-PAGE is an electrophoresis method that allows protein separation by mass. The medium (also referred to as ′matrix′) is a polyacrylamide-based discontinuous gel.SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyacrylamide gel largely eliminates the influence of the structure and charge, and proteins are separated solely based on polypeptide chain length. It uses sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules to help identify and isolate protein molecules.SDS-PAGE is a discontinuous electrophoretic system developed by Ulrich K. Laemmli which is commonly used as a method to separate proteins with molecular masses between 5 and 250 KDa.The publication describing it is the most frequently cited paper by a single author, and the second... Read More

Current physiotherapy.

Image Interferential current therapy is an effective therapy option used by many physiotherapy clinics to relieve pain and accelerate the self-healing process, getting your body back to a healthy, pain Free State. The high frequency signals of an IFC penetrate through the skin into deeper lying muscle tissues. Electrodes are placed on your skin around the injured body part. The Interferential Current device then transmits electrical impulses in minute quantities through your skin. Underlying tissue and nerves are stimulated which begins the healing properties. These impulses are not painful in the least. In fact, patients describe the sensation as a minor... Read More

Albinism is a congenital disorder.

Image Albinism is a congenital condition characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes in humans. There are a variety of vision disorders associated with albinism, such as photophobia, nystagmus, and amblyopia. Lacking skin pigmentation makes sunburn and skin cancers more susceptible. Albinism can be associated with defects in the transport of melanin granules in rare cases such as the Chédiak – Higashi syndrome. This also affects important granules that are present in immune cells which lead to increased susceptibility to infection. Albinism is the result of recessive gene allele inheritance, and is believed... Read More

Isotope of element.

Image : Isotopes are variations of a particular chemical element that vary in number of neutrons, and consequently in number of nucleons. Both isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom but different number of neutrons. The number of protons within the nucleus of the atom is called the atomic number which is equal to the number of electrons in the atom which is neutral (non-ionized). Could atomic number identify a particular element, but not the isotope; the number of neutrons in an atom of a given element can vary widely. The number of nucleons... Read More

Temporomandibular Joint.

Image Neck Pain may be linked to other neighboring disorders such as the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ). This study aimed to investigate whether there is benefit in incorporating TMJ therapies to routine physiotherapy compared to a control group in patients with non-specific chronic neck pain. Left untreated, the TMJ problems can get more serious and more difficult to treat at the same time. Chronic, severe headaches may cause TMJ disorder. Another common issue with untreated TMJ disorder is deterioration of the dentistry. The irregular surface of a bite is one cause of TMJ dysfunction. Accepting paper regarding field of physiotherapy you can... Read More

Exothermic processes.

Image The term exothermic process describes a process or reaction in thermodynamics that releases energy from the system to its environment, typically in the form of heat, but often in the form of light, electricity, or sound. The definition is also applied to chemical reactions in the physical sciences, such as in chemical bond energy which is converted into thermal energy (heat). Simply put, more energy was released into the surrounding after an exothermic reaction than was consumed to start and sustain the reaction. An example would be a candle burning, which is the amount of calories emitted by combustion. An... Read More

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia the genetic disease.

Image Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is one of many autosomal recessive diseases arising from gene mutations for enzymes mediating biochemical steps of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids formed by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis) from cholesterol. Most of these conditions include excessive or defective sex steroid activity, and can alter the development of primary or secondary sex characteristics in some babies, children or adults affected. Each type of CAH has a particular defective gene associated with it. The most common form (90–95 per cent of cases) is the 21-hydroxylase gene found as part of the HLA complex on 6p21.3. 21-Hydroxylase deficiency results from... Read More

Integrating Yoga Therapy in the Management of Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report

Image The Journal focuses on integrative medicine, urinary incontinence, yoga.A 63-year-old overweight female prediagnosed of stress urinary incontinence presented with exacerbated events of urine leakage. She was advised a residential lifestyle and behavioral program, primarily consisting of a monitored yoga therapy module, apart from her ongoing anticholinergic medicine, for 21 days. Assessments were based on a frequency volume chart, a bladder diary for the entire duration of treatment, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form questionnaire on the days of admission and discharge. A total of 1.9 kg of weight loss was observed during her stay. Usage of... Read More

A National Survey of Yoga Instructors and their Delivery of Yoga Therapy

Image Yoga therapy may improve a variety of symptoms and health conditions, but little is known about how yoga therapy is being delivered in the real world. The purpose of this study was to describe the delivery of yoga therapy by yoga instructors across the U.S. In this cross-sectional survey, certified instructors were recruited from the Iyengar Yoga National Association, United States (IYNAUS) (n = 966) via an email that contained a link to an anonymous online survey that collected information on demographics, their delivery of yoga therapy, and the health conditions and symptoms seen and records kept by the instructors.... Read More

The OTSC Proctology clip system for anal fistula closure: First prospective clinical data

Image Anorectal fistulas represen ta troublesome condition for both patient and surgeon.TheOTSC Proctologyclip system is a new device for transanal anorectal fistula closure. The OTSC Proctology system was evaluated in a prospective clinical study undertaken in two surgical proctological centers. Ten patients (three women, seven men; median age 55 years, range 25-73 years) with nine transsphincteric and one suprasphincteric fistulas were enrolled into thestudy. Themedianoperationtimewas30minutes(range20-45minutes).Therewerenointraoperativetechnical or surgical complications. Postoperatively, no patient reported intolerable discomfort, immoderate pain or foreign body sensation intheanalregion.At follow-up examination six months after surgery, nine out often patients had no clinical signsor symptoms of their previous fistula and... Read More

Prospective pilot study of anorectal fistula closure with the OTSC Proctology

Image The OTSC Proctology is a surgical device for anorectal fistula closure. It consists of a super-elastic nitinol clip, which is placed (with the aid of a transanal applicator) on the internal fistula opening to achieve healing of the fistula track. A prospective, two-centre clinical pilot study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of the OTSC Proctology in patients with a complex high anorectal fistula. Method In patients with a complex anorectal fistula the primary track was debrided using a special brush and the clip was applied to the internal fistula opening. After 6 months the postoperative clinical... Read More

Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies

Image The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus is spreading rapidly, and scientists are endeavoring to discover drugs for its efficacious treatment in China. Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China. The drug is recommended to be included in the next version of the Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19 infection in larger populations in the future. The... Read More

Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Image The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and then spread rapidly worldwide, particularly to China, Japan, and South Korea. Scientists are endeavoring to find antivirals specific to the virus. Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, and favipiravir are currently undergoing clinical studies to test their efficacy and safety in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China; some promising results have been achieved thus far. This article summarizes agents with potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. The virus SARS-CoV-2 (formerly designated 2019nCoV) emerged in December 2019 and then spread rapidly worldwide, particularly to China, Japan, and South Korea. As of... Read More

IC Analyses Including Extracted Inductance Models

Image IC inductance extraction generally produces either port inductances based on simplified current path assumptions or a complete partial inductance matrix. Combining either of these results with the IC interconnect resistance and capacitance models significantly complicates most IC design and verification methodologies. In this tutorial paper we will review some of the analysis and verification problems associated with on–chip inductance, and present a subset of recent results for partially addressing the challenges which lie ahead. Due to the global nature of inductive coupling, extracted inductance models come in various forms and are derived using several simplifying approximations. For IC inductance extraction... Read More

A Comparative Analysis of Two Test Methods of Measuring d- and q-Axes Inductances of Interior Permanent-Magnet Machine

Image The interior permanent-magnet (IPM) machine is used in many industrial drives. In order to analyze performance and to design efficient and fast controllers, accurate knowledge of machine parameters such as - and -axes inductances is essential. Although there are a number of methods available to calculate these inductances, none of them is considered standard. Accuracy levels of all these methods are also not consistent, and some of the measurement methods require complicated arrangements. Among these test methods, the ac standstill test and a newly developed test method that uses vector current control technique are ideal for a laboratory environment. In... Read More

NITEGE-Expression in Meniscal Matrix (apjot)

Image No marker reflecting the pathobiology of meniscal degeneration (MD) is established so far. NITEGE is a hexapeptide fragments produced when aggrecan is cleaved. Methods. In vitro IL-1 exposition of bovine menisci (n = 4) caused extracellular NITEGE deposits detected by immunofluorescence. A retrospective immunohistochemical analysis of (n = 60) patients after meniscectomy for NITEGE deposits was performed. MD was graded as follows: no/little (grade 0/1), medium (grade 2) or severe (grade 3). Results. NITEGE deposits in areas of degeneration were demonstrated in 55% of the patients with grade 2 or 3 MD (PPV & specificity 100%), while no extracellular NITEGE... Read More

Chest therapy for better respiration.

Image Chest physical therapy is the term used for a community of therapies aimed at enhancing respiratory performance, encouraging lung expansion, strengthening respiratory muscles and reducing respiratory secretions. Healthy respiratory safety can't be done without effective clearance of airway secretions. This is usually achieved in a healthy person by means of two mechanisms: mucociliar clearance system (MCS) and cough capacity. Children have numerous illnesses and disorders due to poor lung health and an impaired capacity to clear secretions. The purpose of chest physical therapy, also known as chest physiotherapy, is to help patients breathe more freely and to bring more oxygen... Read More

Apert syndrome in newborns.

Image Apert syndrome is a type of acrocephalosyndacty, a congenital condition which is characterized by head, face, hands, and feet malformations. It is classified as a branchial arch syndrome which affects the first branchial (or pharyngeal) arch, the maxilla precursor, and mandible. Disturbances in the formation of the branchial arches produce permanent and widespread effects in fetal development. In embryology, the hands and feet have selective cells which die in a process called selective cell death, or apoptosis, which causes digit separation. Selective cell death does not occur in the case of acrocephalosyndacty, and skin, and occasionally bone, fuses between the... Read More

Endothermic processes.

Image An endothermic process is any process that involves, usually in the form of heat, or absorbs, energy from its environment. This may be a chemical process, such as ammonium nitrate dissolving in water, or a physical process, such as ice cube melting. All chemical reactions require both the breaking of existing chemical bonds and the formation of new ones. A reaction to breaking a bond often involves energy input and so this cycle is always endothermic. As atoms come together to form new chemical bonds, the combined electrostatic forces leave the bond with a substantial amount of energy. If that... Read More

Electroblotting and its procedure

Image Electroblotting is a method in molecularbiology /biochemistry/immunogenetics to transfer proteins or nucleic acids onto a membrane by using PVDF or nitrocellulose, after gel electrophoresis.The protein or nucleic acid can then be further analyzed using probes such as specific antibodies, ligands like lectins, or stains. This method can be used with all polyacrylamide and agarose gels. An alternative technique for transferring proteins from a gel is capillary blotting. DEVELOPMENT This technique was patented in 1989 by William J. Littlehales under the title "Electroblotting technique for transferring specimens from a polyacrylamide electrophoresis or like gel onto a membrane. PROCEDURE This technique relies upon current and a transfer buffer solution to drive proteins or nucleic acids onto a... Read More

Hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19

Image COVID-19 is a new illness that can affect your lungs and airways. It's caused by a virus called coronavirus. Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. The first confirmed case of what was then an unknown coronavirus was traced back to November 2019 in Hubei province.Common symptoms include fever, dry cough, fatigue, sputum production, ... Read More

Multiple sclerosis: Its causes and genetics

Image Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. While the cause is unclear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells. CAUSES: The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is believed to occur as a result of some combination of genetic and environmental factors such as infectious agents. Theories try to combine the data into likely explanations, but none has proved definitive. While there are a number of environmental risk factors and although some are partly modifiable, further research is needed to determine whether their elimination can... Read More

Range of motion for better result.

Image The motion range (or ROM) is the linear or angular distance that a moving body will usually move while properly connected to another body. It is also called travel range (or ROT), particularly when thinking about mechanical devices and in fields of mechanical engineering. As used in the biomedical field and by weightlifters, motion range refers to the distance and direction that a joint will travel between the flexed position and the extended position. The act of attempting to increase this distance through therapeutic exercises (range of motion therapy — stretching for physiological benefit from flexion to extension) is also... Read More

Poliosis circumscripta a genetic disorder.

Image : Poliosis is the decrease or absence of melanin (or color) in head hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, or any other hairy region. When it affects hair immediately above the forehead it is popularly known as white forelock. Single or less commonly, several white patches on the hair may cause this condition. Some mistake those white patches for simple marks of birth. In poliosis, the hair bulbs of infected hair follicles contain reduced or absent melanin; skin melanocytes are generally not infected. Poliosis occurs in various hereditary syndromes, including piebaldism, Waardenburg syndrome, type I neurofibromatosis, and tuberous sclerosis. It can also occur... Read More

Zwitterions in daily life

Image A zwitterion is a molecule containing an equal number of functional group(s) charged positively and of functional group(s) charged negatively. Zwitterions may also be called internal salts. With amino acids, for example, a chemical equilibrium between the "parent" molecule and the zwitterion will be formed in solution. Betaines are zwitterions that cannot isomerize to an all-neutral form, for instance when the positive charge is on a quaternary ammonium group. Likewise, a molecule that comprises a group of phosphoniums and a group of carboxylate cannot isomerise. Although the equilibrium cannot be experimentally studied in solution between a compound and its zwitterion... Read More

Integrating Yoga Into Cancer Care

Image Although yoga has been practiced in Eastern culture for thousands of years as part of life philosophy, classes in the United States only recently have been offered to people with cancer. The word yoga is derived from the Sanskrit root yuj, meaning to bind, join, and yoke. This reflection of the union of the body, mind, and spirit is what differentiates yoga from general exercise programs. Yoga classes in the United States generally consist of asanas (postures), which are designed to exercise every muscle, nerve, and gland in the body. The postures are combined with pranayama, or rhythmic control of... Read More

Yoga Ameliorates Performance Anxiety and Mood Disturbance in Young Professional Musicians

Image Yoga and meditation can alleviate stress, anxiety, mood disturbance, and musculoskeletal problems, and can enhance cognitive and physical performance. Professional musicians experience high levels of stress, performance anxiety, and debilitating performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The goal of this controlled study was to evaluate the benefits of yoga and meditation for musicians. Young adult professional musicians who volunteered to participate in a 2-month program of yoga and meditation were randomized to a yoga lifestyle intervention group (n = 15) or to a group practicing yoga and meditation only (n = 15). Additional musicians were recruited to a no-practice control group (n... Read More

The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis

Image Controversy surroundstheriskofcolorectalcancer(CRC) in ulcerative colitis (UC). Many studies have investigated this risk and reported widely varying rates. A literature search using Medline with the explosion of references identified 194 studies. Of these, 116 met our inclusion criteria from which the number of patients and cancers detected could be extracted. Overall pooled estimates,with95%confidenceintervals(CI), of cancer prevalence and incidence were obtained using a random eVects model on either the log odds or log incidence scale, as appropriate. The overall prevalence of CRC in any UC patient, based on 116 studies, was estimated to be 3.7% (95% CI 3.2–4.2%).Of the 116 studies, 41... Read More

Folate, Methionine, and Alcohol Intake and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma

Image  Reduced methylation of DNA may contribute to loss of the normal controls on proto-oncogene expression. In humans, hypomethylation of DNA has been observed in colorectal cancers and in their adenomatous polyp precursors. Accumulation of DNA methylation abnormalities, observed during progression of human colorectal neoplasia, may be influenced by certain dietary factors. The apparent protective effect of fresh fruits and vegetables, the major folate sources, on colorectal cancer incidence suggests that a methyldeficient diet contributes to occurrence of this malignancy. Low dietary folate and methionine and high intake of alcohol may reduce levels of S-adenosylmethionlne, which is required for DNA methylation.... Read More

Evaluating Hallucinogenic or Psychedelic Drug Intoxication in an Emergency Setting

Image Under certain conditions or in an overdose setting, several classes of drugs can induce illusions, hallucinations, or delusions. However, one of the hallmark features of hallucinogens or psychedelic agents is their ability to induce states of altered or distorted perception, thought, and mood. Many hallucinogens produce classic sympathomimetic effects; that is, hyperactivity, mydriasis (dilated pupils), hypertension, tachycardia, and hyperthermia. However, the effects vary considerably, depending upon the hallucinogen ingested. Qualitative confirmation by the laboratory that the patient is suffering from hallucinogen intoxication such as marijuana use can be helpful to the clinician. However, the common toxicologic drug screens used by... Read More

Impacts of Drugs on Neurotransmission

Image Drugs of abuse alter the way people think, feel, and behave by disrupting neurotransmission, the process of communication between brain cells. Over the past few decades, studies have established that drug dependence and addiction are features of an organic brain disease caused by drugs' cumulative impacts on neurotransmission. Scientists continue to build on this essential understanding with experiments to further elucidate the physiological bases for drug abuse vulnerability as well as the full dimensions and progression of the disease. The findings provide powerful leads to new medications and behavioral treatments. A person reads. The words on the page enter the... Read More

Search and Pursuit-Evasion in Mobile Robotics

Image Joint research between divergent disciplines has led to significant advances in autonomous search and pursuitevasion with mobile robots. While robotics applications have often served as catalysts for vibrant research at the intersection of traditional disciplines, only recently have researchers undertaken the study of robotic systems for search missions and pursuit-evasion contexts. This article surveys recent advances in this area, which leverage both theoretical foundations and practical implementations to forge new and innovative results. Search and pursuit-evasion problems (also known as “one-sided search” and “adversarial search,” respectively) have traditionally been addressed using two contrasting approaches. One perspective has been to design... Read More


Image Robotic devices are helping shed light on human motor control in health and injury. By using robots to apply novel force fields to the arm, investigators are gaining insight into how the nervous system models its external dynamic environment. The nervous system builds internal models gradually by experience and uses them in combination with impedance and feedback control strategies. Internal models are robust to environmental and neural noise, generalized across space, implemented in multiple brain regions, and developed in childhood. Robots are also being used to assist in repetitive movement practice following neurologic injury, providing insight into movement recovery. Robots... Read More

Mucosal Immunology

Image Mucosal Immunology is the official publication of the Society for Mucosal Immunology (SMI). It aims to provide a forum for both basic and clinical scientists to discuss all aspects of immunity and inflammation involving mucosal tissues. The journal reflects the interests of scientists studying gastrointestinal, pulmonary, nasopharyngeal, oral, ocular, and genitourinary immunology through the publication of original research articles, scholarly reviews, and timely commentaries, editorials and letters. Publication of basic, translational, and clinical studies will all be given equal consideration. In addition, the journal publishes news items concerning its sponsoring society. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has... Read More

macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells

Image Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell. They are the largest type of leukocyte and can differentiate into macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells. As a part of the vertebrate innate immune system monocytes also influence the process of adaptive immunity. There are at least three subclasses of monocytes in human blood based on their phenotypic receptors. Monocytes are amoeboid in appearance, and have nongranulated cytoplasm.[1], thus are classified as agranulocytes. Containing unilobar nuclei, these cells are one of the types of mononuclear leukocytes which shelter azurophil granules. The archetypal geometry of the monocyte nucleus is ellipsoidal;... Read More

Kupffer –Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages

Image Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer–Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids. They form part of the mononuclear phagocyte system Development. Their development begins in the yolk sac where they differentiate into fetal macrophages. Once they enter the blood stream, they migrate to the fetal liver where they stay. There they complete their differentiation into Kupffer cells.Function apart from clearing any bacteria, red blood cells are also broken down by phagocytic action, where the hemoglobin molecule is split. The globin chains are re-used, while the iron-containing portion, heme, is... Read More


Image The immune system is a composite of the means by which individual organisms maintain their individual integrity in the face of constant interaction with the environment and the continuous internal process of death and removal of host cells that allows for replacement and growth. Both the innate and adaptive divisions of the immune system are critical to the maintenance of homeostasis, physical integrity, and health. Intricately interactive pathways of cells, cell surface receptors, antibodies, and cytokines provide surveillance against invasive pathogens and nonself entities and internal destruction and removal of host senescent cells. The specificity and efficacy of these immune... Read More

Immunology of Barrier Surfaces

Image Barrier surfaces are the first to come into contact with pathogens and have overlapping and unique immunological mechanisms to prevent infection. The lung, gut and skin form major physcial and immunological barriers to infection. These organs are the main portal of entry for a variety of air and food borne pathogens, allergens and other environmental pollutants.  They have the unique ability to maintain homeostasis in the face of constant external provocation.  Once this property is jeopardized, different types of diseases ensue.  Although the underlying mechanisms of some of these diseases are not known, it is now becoming clear that immune... Read More

Immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer

Image Immunodeficiency or immunocompromise is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent. Most cases of immunodeficiency are acquired ("secondary") due to extrinsic factors that affect the patient's immune system. Examples of these extrinsic factors include HIV infection and environmental factors, such as nutrition. In the clinical setting, the immunosuppression by some drugs, such as steroids, can be either an adverse effect or the intended purpose of the treatment. Examples of such use is in organ transplant surgery as an anti-rejection measure and in patients suffering from an overactive immune... Read More

HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system

Image The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that infect humans. Over time they cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. Research has shown (for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples) that HIV is untransmittable through... Read More

Contagiousness varies between diseases

Image A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes. Contagiousness varies between diseases. Non-contagious infections, by contrast, usually require a special mode of transmission between persons or hosts. These include need for intermediate vector species (mosquitoes that carry malaria) or by non-casual transfer of bodily fluid (such as transfusions, needle sharing or sexual contact). The boundary between contagious and non-contagious infectious diseases is not perfectly... Read More

Immunology Laboratory in the evaluation of autoimmune disease

Image The Immunology Laboratory is responsible for laboratory testing and clinical consultation in several broad areas including the evaluation of autoimmune disease, immunodeficiencies, immunoproliferative disorders, and allergy, as well as having responsibility for some aspects of infectious disease serology. Much work is carried out together with the Molecular Diagnostics, Microbiology, Virology and Hematology laboratories to provide seamless consultation and diagnostics for various clinical scenarios. In the evaluation of immunodeficiency, whether congenital or as a result of transplantation, and especially in the clinical trial setting, the laboratory also works in concert with the Immune Monitoring Core Facility. The laboratory is responsible for... Read More

Artificial stimulation of the immune system to treat cancer

Image Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology) is the artificial stimulation of the immune system to treat cancer, improving on the immune system's natural ability to fight the disease. It is an application of the fundamental research of cancer immunology and a growing subspeciality of oncology. Cancer immunotherapy exploits the fact that cancer cells often have tumor antigens, molecules on their surface that can be detected by the antibody proteins of the immune system, binding to them. The tumor antigens are often proteins or other macromolecules (e.g., carbohydrates). Normal antibodies bind to external pathogens, but the modified immunotherapy antibodies bind to the... Read More

Spine Chilling CORONA Virus

Image SARS Covid-19 pandemic has devastated the entire globe. As we are aware of the fact that the corona virus enters our body through the mouth, nose and ears. We are provided with only the information about the overview of the effects of the virus but not in detail. The corona affected patients who have now recovered from the condition might not be having the in detailed information of the precautionary measures to be taken to improve the health condition of their nose and throat and this may lead to further medical complications. Being the source of an Electronic print media,... Read More

Work From Home Option- A root cause of few body ailments

Image SARS Covid-19 pandemic has been demolishing the global economy to a condition like ever before because of the worldwide Lockdown. The governance of the countries all over the globe are mystified with the situation and are baffled to decide on what they should focus on. Whether the dropping economy or the medical condition of the people. Then in one corner of the globe has come up with a solution called “Work From Home”. This is the condition in which people can perform their duties without fail just by remaining at their place in this critical lockdown situation. People are really... Read More

Transplantation and Medical Surgery

Image Transplantation has been a boon for patients (like infants, children, middle aged, aged, etc.) who suffer with various types cancers to lead a health life. Every day on an average 20 people die around the globe. One deceased donor can save up to eight lives through organ donation and can save and enhance more than 100 lives through the lifesaving and healing gift of tissue donation. Organs that can be donated after death are the heart, liver, kidneys, lungs, pancreas and small intestines. Tissues include corneas, skin, veins, heart valves, tendons, ligaments and bones. A healthy person can become a... Read More

Self-rated Masticatory Ability and Independent Life in Community Dwelling Elderly Populations

Image Poor chewing ability is associated with deterioration in the quality of life in older adults. Little is known about how self-rated chewing ability is related with an independent life in communitydwelling older adults. This study examined whether self-rated chewing ability was associated with independent life in communitydwelling older people. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 1,377 subjects over the age of 65 who lived in Kumamoto City, Japan (mean age 79.8 years). Participants divided three groups based on their selfrated chewing ability; good, fair and poor. We assessed needs for support to the community-dwelling older adults with various questionnaires such as,... Read More

Age Dependent Changes of Biological Properties in the Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Bone Marrow Cells in FVB Mice

Image In the last years researchers’ attention has been given to the immunomodulatory properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The question of effectiveness of the stem cell therapy with MSCs from elderly donors is worth studying. Our aim was to compare the potency of bone marrow MSCs in aging. Methods: BM-MSCs were obtained using the standard methods. The following methods were applied: immunophenotyping, colony-forming unit fibroblasts assay, granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cells assay in the semi-agar cultures, directed differentiation, colorimetric method, MTT assay. Results: The stromal progenitor cells increase in their number indicating age-associated elevated ability of the BM-MSCs to proliferation. The BM-MSCs... Read More

A Triplet Baby with Progressive Hydrocephalus and Neurodevelopmental Delay

Image A 4-month old baby girl, one of the Triplets born premature at 34 weeks of gestation was admitted at one of the South Africa’s referral hospital due to severe vomiting, progressive hydrocephalus with neuro-developmental delay. The other two siblings demised shortly after birth. The mother was known HIV positive on the HAART and the baby tested negative using HIV DNA PCR. Three consecutive samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the shunt were sent to the laboratory for analysis. The baby did not have any fever, neck stiffness or seizures. Four consecutive CSF samples showed clear appearance, decreased glucose levels with... Read More

Prostate-specific antigen test

Image Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), is a glycoprotein enzyme encoded in humans by the KLK3 gene. PSA is a member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. It is also believed to be instrumental in dissolving cervical mucus, allowing the entry of sperm into the uterus. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders. PSA is not a unique indicator of prostate cancer, but may also detect prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia. MECHANISM    The physiological function of KLK3... Read More

Cardiopulmonary bypass

Image Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a technique in which a machine temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the patient's body. The CPB pump itself is often referred to as a heart–lung machine or "the pump". Cardiopulmonary bypass pumps are operated by perfusionists. CPB is a form of extracorporeal circulation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is generally used for longer-term treatment. CPB mechanically circulates and oxygenates blood for the body while bypassing the heart and lungs. It uses a heart–lung machine to maintain perfusion to other body organs and tissues while the surgeon works in a bloodless surgical field. The surgeon... Read More

The Effects of 1-Aminobenzotriazole Inhibition on the Formation of Acyl-Glucuronide and Acyl-Glutathione Metabolites in Rat Hepatocytes

Image 1-Aminobenzotriaole (ABT) is a commonly used non-selective mechanism based human and non-human cytochrome P450 (P450) inactivator. However, the direct effects of ABT mediated P450 inhibition on conjugative metabolism, specifically acyl-glucuronide and acyl-glutathione formation has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of ABT induced inhibition of P450 metabolism on the formation of 1-O-acyl-glucuronides of the carboxylic acid-containing drugs gemfibrozil (GEM), tolmetin (TOL), mefenamic acid (MFA), and diclofenac (DCF), and the S-acyl-glutathione formation of MFA and DCF in rat hepatocytes. In vitro incubations of each carboxylic acid-containing drug (100 μM) separately... Read More

Are Both Antidepressant Drug Effects and Test Scores Unspecific?

Image Disappointingly small clinical effects of antidepressant drugs have recently been reemphasized. It is also unclear to what degree the 17 questions in the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression and other questionnaires represent true aspects of depression or rather can be said to measure unspecific symptoms. Methods: Within all clinical study reports concerning citalopram submitted to the Danish Health Authorities before registration in 1988 we identified among 49 studies two studies with placebo groups reporting individual patient scores. A multiple regression analysis was performed by treating questionnaire item no 1 (depressed mood) as the dependent variable and the... Read More

The influence of Hatha yoga as an add-on treatment in major depression on hypothalamicepituitaryeadrenal-axis activity: A randomized trial

Image The impact of Hatha yoga as add-on treatment to quetiapine fumarate extended release (QXR) or escitalopram (ESC) in depressed patients on hypothalamicepituitaryeadrenal (HPA) axis activity was assessed. 60 inpatients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV were randomized for a 5 week treatment with Yoga or not (control group) and with either QXR (300 mg/day) or ESC (10 mg/day). Serial dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone (DEX/CRH) tests were performed to assess HPA axis function. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (21-HAMD) was used weekly.  A more pronounced down regulation of the HPA axis activity due to yoga could not be detected.... Read More

Back and neck pain in office workers.

Image Sitting at a desk is a common source of back and neck discomfort, mostly because you're accommodating instead of the other way around to your workstation. For example, many people are straining to see a computer display that is too distant, too low, too high, too tiny or too dim. This makes healthy posture compromised. The average human head weighs approximately 12 pounds (5.4 kg)—the size of a bowling ball! Your head exerts approximately 23 kilograms of force on your neck when your back is bent to 45 degrees. The pressure impacts your breathing and attitude in addition to straining... Read More

Effects of Yoga on Mental and Physical Health

Image The conceptual background of yoga has its origins in ancient Indian philosophy. There are numerous modern schools or types of yoga (i.e., Iyengar, Viniyoga, Sivananda, etc.), each having its own distinct emphasis regarding the relative contentofphysicalposturesandexercises(asanas),breathing techniques (pranayama), deep relaxation, and meditation practices that cultivate awareness and ultimately more profound states of consciousness. The application of yoga as a therapeutic intervention, which began early in the twentieth century, takes advantage of the various psychophysiological benefits of the component practices. The physical exercises (asanas) may increase patient’s physical flexibility, coordination, and strength, while the breathing practices and meditation may calm and... Read More

Stability Study of Fifteen Synthetic Cannabinoids of Aminoalkylindole Type in Whole Blood, Stored in Vacutainer® Evacuated Glass Tubes

Image The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of blood concentrations of a variety of synthetic cannabinoids when spiked and stored in Vacutainer® evacuated glass tubes. Analysis for synthetic cannabinoids will be of less importance if the compounds disappear during transportation, and thus the previous must be tested for the specific tubes used during sample collection. In this study, tubes were filled with spiked whole blood and analysed after one week of storage at ambient temperature, in a refrigerator (+4°C), and in a freezer (-20°C). And such relevant topic falls under the scope of ... Read More

Methadone Related Deaths: Identifying The Vulnerable Patients

Image Methadone has been used in opioid dependence treatment since the 1960s and is now prescribed also as a chronic pain treatment. Even though its effectiveness has been worldwide assessed, literature reports several cases of death associated with the administration of this drug. Risk factors are still uncertain and the frequent combination with other substances of abuse makes it even more difficult to determine the exact role of methadone in the pathogenesis of fatalities. In this paper the authors present the autopsy findings in a subset of deaths characterized by blood being positive for the methadone only at... Read More

Resident Attrition in Post Graduate Surgical Training

Image Resident attrition is a significant issue facing graduate surgical education, with broad implications for trainees, their families, educators, and society at large. Resident attrition is costly and often may represent a poor initial selection process, inadequate training in medical school, or insufficient feedback and mentoring while the resident is in the postgraduate program. Promoting an environment that encourages mentorship may be an important first step to help residents maximize their professional potential. The successful mentoring of surgical residents is crucial because the entire specialty depends on how today’s residents face tomorrow’s challenges. Residency is known to be a stressful, demanding... Read More

Waardenburg syndrome.

Image Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by at least some degree of congenital hearing impairment and defects in pigmentation that can include bright blue eyes (or one blue eye and one brown eye), white forelock, or light skin patches. The syndrome is caused by mutations in some of several genes that influence neural crest cell division and migration during embryonic development (although some of the genes involved also influence the neural tube). Waardenburg's syndrome has several different forms with some symptom variations, and symptoms can vary among those of the same form. The two common characteristics in all... Read More

Free radicals benefit and harms.

Image Category: Engineering Title: Free radicals benefit and harms. Author: Veronica Description: A radical, in chemistry, is an atom, molecule, or ion with an unpaired valence electron. Such unpaired electrons, with certain exceptions, make radicals extremely chemically reactive. Most radicals dimerize spontaneously. Many organic radicals undergo short lifetimes. Radicals in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, polymerization, plasma chemistry, biochemistry, and many other chemical processes are significant. The radical-generating enzymes produce a significant fraction of natural products. The superoxide and nitric oxide radicals and their reaction products regulate many processes in living organisms, such as regulation of vascular speech, and therefore blood pressure. They... Read More

Management of hepatitis C; Report of the Consensus Meeting at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Hepatology

Image The consensus meeting for the diagnosis, management and treatment for hepatitis C was held in 45th annual meeting for the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH) in June 2009 where the recommendations and informative statements were discussed including organizers and presenters. The Several important informative statements and recommendations have been shown.This was the fourth JSH consensus meeting of hepatitis C, however, the recommendations have not been published in English previously. Thus, this is the first report of JSH consensus of hepatitis C. The rate of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HCV-infected patients in Japan is higher than in the USA,... Read More

the Infectious Complications of Interventional Radiology Based Procedures in Gastroenterology and hepatology

Image Many interventional radiology (IR) procedures are used to manage gastroenterological and hepatobiliary diseases. One of the most common complications of any IR procedure is infection. Literature published in English from January 1960 to August 2010 pertaining to the infectious complications of IR in gastroenterology and hepatology patients was examined by electronic search (Medline and the National Library of Medicine, Embase and the Cochrane Library). Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTC) and biliary drainage, trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS), imaged guided drainage of an intra-abdominal abscess and radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) are the most common IR procedures performed for gastroenterology... Read More

A review of pharmacological properties, pharmacognosy and therapeutic actions of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. (Putranjiva)

Image Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. is a well-known plant which has been ascribed an important role in Ayurvedic texts as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory & anti-rheumatic herb useful in gynaecological and fertility ailments. The pharmacognosy of its leaves, fruits, root and stem bark indicates the presence of many glycosides, saponins, triterpenes and flavonoids. Its leaf extract has been found suitable in biological methods of gold nanoparticle production. During pharmacological analysis, its leaf extract exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. The significant cytotoxicity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in seeds indicate its efficient protection roles against various diseases. Similarly, high antibacterial... Read More


Image Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard commonly known as Rayan/ Khirni is an evergreen tree of Western ghats (Maharashtra) India. Itbelongs to the family Sapotaceae. The fruit of this tree is edible and is available in the markets. While the bark is used in curing fever, flatulence, stomach disorder, etc. by the aboriginals. However, the said plant part is studied for the first time. The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostical studies on the stem bark of the above plant. For Pharmacognostical evaluation macroscopy, microscopy, powder study and histochemical analysis of stem bark were performed. Physicochemical constants such as ash and extractive... Read More

The Valley Hall Effect in MoS2 Transistors

Image Electrons in 2-dimensional crystals with a honeycomb lattice structure possess a new valley degree of freedom (DOF) in addition to charge and spin. Each valley is predicted to exhibit a Hall effect in the absence of a magnetic field whose sign depends on the valley index, but to date this effect has not been observed. Here we report the first observation of this new valley Hall effect (VHE). Monolayer MoS2 transistors are illuminated by circularly polarized light which preferentially excites electrons into a specific valley, and a finite anomalous Hall voltage is observed whose sign is controlled by the helicity... Read More

Device Physics of Solution-Processed Organic Field-Effect Transistors

Image Field-effect transistors based on solution-processible organic semiconductors have experienced impressive improvements in both performance and reliability in recent years, and printing-based manufacturing processes for integrated transistor circuits are being developed to realize low-cost, large-area electronic products on flexible substrates. This article reviews the materials, charge-transport, and device physics of solution-processed organic field-effect transistors, focusing in particular on the physics of the active semiconductor/dielectric interface. Issues such as the relationship between microstructure and charge transport, the critical role of the gate dielectric, the influence of polaronic relaxation and disorder effects on charge transport, charge-injection mechanisms, and the current understanding of mechanisms... Read More

Knee effusion in different age group people.

Image Knee effusion happens when excess synovial fluid builds up in or around the knee joint. This has many common causes including arthritis, ligament damage or meniscus damage, or bursa fluid accumulation, a condition known as pre-patellar bursitis. Signs and symptoms of water on the knee are contingent on the origin of excess synovial fluid build-up in the knee joint. They may include: Pain, Swelling, Stiffness, and Bruising. Swelling causes may involve arthritis, knee ligament damage or an incident in which the body's normal response is to cover the knee with a defensive fluid. There may also be a disorder or... Read More

Molecular genetic testing for identification of changes.

Image Genetic testing also known as DNA testing is used to detect variations in the structure of the DNA gene or chromosome. Genetic testing can also involve measuring the effects of genetic modifications, such as RNA analysis as an output of gene expression, or measuring particular protein production through biochemical analysis. Genetic testing can be used in a medical setting to diagnose or rule out potential genetic disorders, predict risks for particular conditions or obtain knowledge that can be used to tailor medical care based on the genetic makeup of a person. According to the National Institutes of Health, tests are... Read More

Hydrogen bonding in different atoms.

Image Hydrogen bonds may be intermolecular i.e. available between different molecules or intramolecular i.e. available between sections of the same molecule. The energy of a hydrogen bond may vary between 1 and 40 kcal / mol depending on the nature of the donor and acceptor atoms which constitute the bond, its geometry, and the environment. It makes them somewhat stronger than a van der Waals interaction, and weaker than complete ionic or covalent bonds. This bond form can occur in inorganic molecules such as water and organic molecules such as DNA and proteins. The hydrogen bond is responsible for many of... Read More

A Study on the Effect of Yogic Intervention on Anxiety

Image  Anxiety is one of the important psychological problems people facing now days. Approximately 40 million American adults ages 18 and older, or about 18.1 percent of people in this age group in the year 2005, have an anxiety disorder.  Contemporary researches done in the area of ‘Yogic intervention and their effect over various parameters of Psychological health’ provoked the researcher to attempt an individual project to judge the effect of Yoga on normal people at the level of anxiety. To observe the effect of Yoga on anxiety level of the normal people a pre - post research design study has... Read More

Integrating Yoga with Psychotherapy: A Complementary Treatment for Anxiety and Depression

Image Yoga reduced anxiety for people with state, trait, and performance anxiety as well as for people with PTSD. The breath work practice, meditation practice, and learning about yoga practices decreased feelings of anxiety, whereas the physical postures decreased the physical symptoms of tension and anxiety. Given that yoga was found to be as effective as conventional relaxation techniques in reducing stress and anxiety, people with anxiety may wish to also consider the unconventional relaxation techniques of yoga. Yoga reduced depression for people with many forms of depression, including those who were taking antidepressant medications or participating in conven Integrating... Read More

Topography of efferent vagal innervation of the rat gastrointestinal tract

Image The gastrointestinal territories innervated by the gastric, celiac, and hepatic abdominal vagi were identified in rats with selective branch vagotomies by means of 1) anterograde tracing with the carbocyanine dye DiI injected into the dorsal motor nucleus and 2) measurement of cervical vagal stimulation-induced motility responses throughout the gut axis. Presence of DiI-labeled vagal terminals in the myenteric plexus and evoked motility responses were well correlated across the sampled gastrointestinal (GI) sites. In animals with only the two gastric branches intact, the entire stomach and the most proximal duodenum showed significant motility responses and were densely innervated, having DiI-labeled vagal... Read More

Serum a-Fetoprotein in Patients with Neoplasms of the Gastrointestinal Tract'

Image Serum a-fetoprotein levels were measured by a sensitive double-antibody radioimmunoassay in 580 patients with a variety of malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases to determine the incidence of levels elevated above 40 ng/ml. Over 200 normal control subjects have all had levels below 40 ng/ml. Fifteen % of 95 patients with gastric carcinoma, 3% of 191 patients with colorectal carcinoma, 24% of 45 patients with pancreatic carcinoma, 25% of 8 patients with biliary tract carcinoma, and 70% of73 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had elevated serum a-feto protein. None of 14 patients with esophageal or small bowel carcinoma had elevated levels. In... Read More

OccurrenceandEnvironmental BehavioroftheChiral PharmaceuticalDrugIbuprofenin SurfaceWatersandinWastewater

Image Pharmaceutical compounds can reach detectable concentrations in rivers and lakes if production and use aresufficientlylargeandthecompoundsshowsomemobility and persistence in the aquatic environment. In this study, we report on the occurrence and on the enantiomer composition of the chiral pharmaceutical drug ibuprofen (IB) in surface waters and in samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Enantioselective gas chromatography and detection by mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used for analysis. IB was present in influents of WWTPs at concentrations of up to 3 µg/L with a high enantiomeric excess of the pharmacologically active S enantiomer ( S . R ), as from human urinary excretion.... Read More

Evaluation of HepaRG Cells as an in Vitro Model for Human Drug Metabolism Studies

Image HepaRG cells, a newly developed human hepatoma cell line, differentiate into hepatocyte-like morphology by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The expression of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, transporter proteins, and transcription factors was stable in differentiated HepaRG cells over a period of 6 weeks when cultured with DMSO. Compared with human hepatocytes, expression of P450 in HepaRG cells was in general lower with the exception for a considerably higher expression of CYP3A4 and CYP7A1. The expression of P450s generally decreased when DMSO was removed from the medium, whereas transporters and liver-specific factors were unaffected. The relative mRNA content of drug-metabolizing P450s... Read More

Frozen shoulder shows up in adults.

Image Frozen shoulder is a condition which affects the joint in your shoulder. It typically involves pain and stiffness which slowly grows, gets worse and eventually goes away. It can take from a year to 3 years, anywhere. The shoulder consists of three bones, forming a ball-and-socket joint. It is a disease in the shoulder joint which is characterized by stiffness and pain. Symptoms can start slowly and improve within one to two years. Treatment includes stretching and often injecting corticosteroids and numbing medication into the joint capsule. The condition occurs more frequently in people with diabetes and in people who... Read More

Chlorination and fluorination of water.

Image Water chlorination is the mechanism by which chlorine or chlorine compounds like sodium hypochlorite are applied to water. This process is used in tap water to destroy certain bacteria and other microbes, as chlorine is highly toxic. Chlorination is used particularly to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid. Water fluorination is the regulated fluoride modification to a public water source to prevent tooth decay. Fluorinated water provides fluoride at an appropriate level for cavity prevention; this may occur naturally or by adding fluoride to it. ... Bottled water usually contains uncertain amounts of fluoride.... Read More

Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics

Image It has been recognized for some time that the spontaneous emission by atoms is not necessarily a fixed and immutable property of the coupling between matter and space, but that it can be controlled by modification of the properties of the radiation field. This is equally true in the solid state, where spontaneous emission plays a fundamental role in limiting the performance of semiconductor lasers, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells. If a three-dimensionally periodic dielectric structure has an electromagnetic band gap which overlaps the electronic band edge, then spontaneous emission can be rigorously forbidden. It has been recognized for some... Read More

Gene therapy for correction of some genetic disorder.

Image Gene therapy (also known as human gene transfer) is a scientific area that focuses on using the medicinal injection of nucleic acid into the cells of a patient as a medication for treating disease. Solutions to medical challenges, such as the eradication of reservoirs of latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the correction of the mutation causing sickle cell disease, can soon become tangible .Not all of the medical treatments that change the genetic makeup of a patient can be called gene therapy. In general, bone marrow transplants and organ transplants have been found to introduce foreign DNA into patients.... Read More

Rylene and Related Diimides for Organic Electronics

Image  Organic electron-transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, photovoltaic cells, n-channel fi eld-effect transistors, and complementary logic circuits. Rylene diimides are a robust, versatile class of polycyclic aromatic electron-transport materials with excellent thermal and oxidative stability, high electron affi nities, and, in many cases, high electron mobilities; they are, therefore, promising candidates for a variety of organic electronics applications. In this review, recent developments in the area of high-electron-mobility diimides based on rylenes and related aromatic cores, particularly perylene- and naphthalene-diimide-based small molecules and polymers, for application in high-performance organic fi eld-effect transistors and photovoltaic cells... Read More

Impedance phlebography

Image Impedance phlebography, is a non-invasive medical test that measures small changes in electrical resistance of the chest, calf or other regions of the body. These measurements reflect blood volume changes, and can indirectly indicate the presence or absence of venous thrombosis. This procedure provides an alternative to venography, which is invasive and requires a great deal of skill to execute adequately and interpret accurately. For the chest, the technique was developed by NASA to measure the split second impedance changes within the chest, as the heart beats, to calculate both cardiac output and lung water content. This technique has progressed clinically (often now called BioZ, i.e. biologic impedance, as promoted... Read More


Image Hemofiltration/ haemofiltration, is a renal replacement therapy which is used in the intensive care setting. It is usually used to treat acute kidney injury (AKI), but may be of benefit in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome or sepsis. During hemofiltration, a patient's blood is passed through a set of tubing (a filtration circuit) via a machine to a semipermeable membrane (the filter) where waste products and water (collectively called ultrafiltrate) are removed by convection. Replacement fluid is added and the blood is returned to the patient. HEMODIAFILTERATION Hemofiltration is sometimes used in combination with hemodialysis, when it is termed hemodiafiltration. Blood is pumped through the blood compartment of a high flux dialyzer, and a high rate of ultrafiltration is used, so... Read More

Psoriatic arthritis effect in adults.

Image Psoriatic arthritis is a type of arthritis that affects certain people with psoriasis a disease that features red skin patches surmounted with silvery scales. Many people first develop psoriasis and are then diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis, but sometimes the joint problems will begin before patches of the skin appear. It is a type of arthritis that affects psoriasis in some people with the skin condition. Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis with an inflammation. Symptoms include pain in the joints; weakness and swelling that may intensify and subside. Most people with the disorder suffer from morning rigidity. And moderate... Read More

Hemophilia inheritance generation after generation.

Image A medical disorder in which the blood's capacity to clot is greatly impaired, causing the patient to bleed excessively from only a minor injury. Usually the disorder is caused by an inherited lack of a coagulation factor, most often factor VIII. It is a condition where blood usually doesn't clot. After any injury or damage, excessive bleeding (external and internal) happens when blood can't clot properly. Symptoms include several large or deep bruises in the urine or stool, joint pain and swelling, unexplained bleeding and blood. Treatment requires doses of plasma or a clotting factor. Share your comments on topic... Read More

Adsorption capacity of any solid surface.

Image Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gaseous, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface. This mechanism produces an adsorbent layer on the adsorbent surface. This method varies from the absorption in which, respectively, a substance (the absorbent) is dissolved or permeated by a liquid or solid (the absorbent). The adsorption is a product of surface energy, analogous to surface stress. For a bulk substance, all the bonding properties of the material's constituent atoms (whether ionic, covalent or metallic) are filled in by other atoms in the sample. Atoms on the adsorbent surface, however, are not... Read More

Potential False Negatives in the Molecular Diagnostics of COVID-19 Infection: Experience of an Italian Laboratory during the COVID-19 Epidemic

Image The Journal Focuses on COVID-19, and Molecular diagnostics.The current situation in the molecular diagnostics field applied to the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2) virus detection has forced various laboratories to quickly offer a solution for the identification of the infected people in this pandemic scenario recently declared by the World Health Organization. In the epidemiological emergency, the rapid commercialization of CE-IVD kits pushed numerous hospitals to adopt these methods without complete internal validations that would allow evaluating the actual analytical methods limits. Moreover, the same WHO, given the global escalation of the epidemic, has listed the... Read More

Supervised training based hand gesture recognition system

Image We have developed a hand gesture recognition system, based on the shape analysis of static gestures, for Human Computer Interaction purposes. Our appearance-based recognition uses modified Fourier descriptors for the classification of hand shapes. As always found in literature, such recognition systems consist of two phases: training and recognition. In our new practical approach, following the chosen appearance-based model, training and recognition is done in an interactive supervised way: the adaptation for untrained gestures is also solved by hand signals. Our experimental results with three different users are reported. In this paper, besides describing the recognition itself, we demonstrate our... Read More

Current techniques for assessing physical exposure to workrelated musculoskeletal risks, with emphasis on posture-based methods

Image The Journal focuses on Musculoskeletal disorders, Risk factors Exposure assessment, and Posture; Interaction.Physical exposure to risks for potential work-related musculoskeletal injuries has been assessed using a variety of methods, including pen and paper based observation methods, videotaping and computer-aided analysis, direct or instrumental techniques, and various approaches to self-report assessment. These methods are critically reviewed in this paper. The applications of these techniques in ergonomic and epidemiologic studies are considered, and their advantages and shortcomings are highlighted. Finally, a strategy that considers both the ergonomics experts’ view and the practitioners’ needs for developing a practical exposure assessment tool is then discussed.... Read More

Dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel disease

Image Abundant data have incriminated intestinal bacteria in the initiation and amplification stages of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).12The role of the NOD2/CARD15 Crohn’s disease (CD) susceptibility gene in bacterial peptidoglycan recognition strengthens the links between enteric bacteria and mucosal inflammation.3–5 Despite these advances, the precise role of intestinal bacteria remains elusive. Nonmutually exclusive theories have included: an unidentified persistent pathogen; an abnormally permeable mucosal barrier leading to excessive bacterial translocation; an immune system abnormality of effector cell activation or insufficient regulatory cell activity in response to intestinal bacteria67; or a breakdown in the balance between putative species of ‘‘protective’’ versus ‘‘harmful’’... Read More

Enhanced Synthesis of Leukotriene B4 by Colonic Mucosa in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Image Leukotriene B4, an arachidonic acid metabolite, is a potent chemotactic agent, and is thought to be an important mediator of inflammation. To investigate the role of this compound as a mediator of inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease, arachidonic acid was incubated with ionophore and colonic mucosa from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and from normal subjects. Mucosa from patients with inflammatory bowel disease converted 2.17% of exogenous arachidonate to leukotriene B4; mucosa from normal subjects converted 0.37%. The production of leukotriene was blocked by sulfasalazine. To determine if inflammatory bowel mucosa contained endogenous leukotriene B4 , lipid extracts were analyzed... Read More

Toxicology: Past, Present, and Future

Image Toxicology is the study of poisons and poisoning and has an ancient and venerable history. Although there have been numerous notorious poisonings throughout the ages and rather astute descriptions of toxic agents, the scientific study of toxicology did not commence until the 19th century. There was rapid development of analytical methods in the late 19th century and then an acceleration of both method and scientific development in the latter half of the 20th century. Toxicology today can be subdivided into clinical toxicology, forensic toxicology, industrial or occupational toxicology, environmental toxicology, pharmaceutical toxicology, experimental toxicology, and workplace drug testing. The historical... Read More

The selection of marmoset monkeys ( Callithrix jacchus) in pharmaceutical toxicology

Image The Journal focuses on Marmoset, Callithrixjacchus, pathology, toxicology, ferret, and minipig. Priortocontrolledclinicaltrialsinhumanvolunteersorpatientsitisrequiredthatnovel pharmaceuticalsareevaluatedforpre-clinicalsafetyinarodentandanon-rodent(`second’) species.Inmostcasestherodentspeciesusedhasbeentheratandthesecondspecieshasbeen thedogormacaque(usuallycynomolgusorrhesus)monkey.However,thereisanincreasing trendwithintheUnitedKingdom(UK)pharmaceuticalindustrytousethecommon marmoset (Callithrixjacchus )forpre-clinicaltoxicologyprogrammes. Thispaperexaminesthepracticalityofusingthecommonmarmoset(henceforthreferred toas`themarmoset’)intoxicologicaltestingandreviewsmetabolicandpharmacodynamic similaritiesbetweenthisspeciesandhumans.Itthendiscussessomeoftheadvantagesand disadvantagesoftheuseofthisspecieswhencomparedwithtwootheralternativestothedog andmacaque,namelytheferretandminipig.Inparticular,themarmosethasclearadvantages overthemacaqueintermsofanimalwelfareandpracticality.Thereisregulatoryacceptance ofthisspeciesforInvestigationalNewDrug(IND),ClinicalTrialExemption(CTX),New DrugApplication(NDA)andMarketingAuthorizationApplication(MAA)registrations. Whilstthedogislikelytobemaintainedastheprimarynon-rodentspeciesintoxicology,the marmosethasbeen,andwilllikelycontinuetobe,adoptedasanadditionalnon-rodent speciesinpre-clinicaltoxicologyprogrammeswhereappropriate. Submit manuscripts as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at A Manuscript number will be emailed to the corresponding author within 72 hours. Best Regards, Editorial Manager Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Emerging Drugs Email: Read More

Sports injury occurs while participating in a sport to sportsman.

Image Sport accidents occur during training, or during a sport. Kids are especially at risk for these kinds of accidents, but adults may also get them. Different sports injuries cause various signs and complications. Among the most common forms of sport injuries are: Sprains, Strains, Knee injuries, swollen muscles, Achilles tendon rupture, Fractures, Dislocations, Rotator cuff injury. Looks like sport injury or feels serious make an appointment to see the doctor. Seek emergency medical attention if the damaged joint shows signs of: severe swelling and pain, visible lumps, bumps, or other deformities popping or crunching sounds when you use the joint... Read More

Ethanol used as a medicine.

Image Ethanol is produced naturally by fermenting sugars by yeasts or by petrochemical processes, and is widely used as a popular recreational product. This also has medicinal uses as an antiseptic and as a disinfectant. The compound is commonly used as a chemical solvent, either for experimental chemical research or in the synthesis of other organic compounds, and it is a critical product used in many different industrial sectors. Ethanol is used as an alternative source of gasoline, too. Ethanol is a liquid that is volatile, flammable, and colorless and has a faint odor. This is a psychoactive drug, which is... Read More

Down syndrome the extra genetic material.

Image Down's syndrome is a genetic condition caused when chromosome 21 triggers irregular cell division to produce extra genetic material. Down's syndrome causes distinct facial appearance, mental disability, and delays in growth. This can contribute to thyroid or heart disease. There are three types of Down syndrome: trisomy 21 (nondisjunction), translocation and mosaicism. Early intervention services are effective in treating Down's syndrome, through a team of clinicians and special educators who can handle the particular condition of each child. Share your comments on topic Email us: Submit your submission through direct online link: For more information visit our website:... Read More

Improving Resolution in Photolithography with a Phase-Shifting Mask

Image The phase-shifting mask  consists of a  normal  transmission mask that has  been coated with  a transparent layer patterned  to ensure that  the optical phases of nearest apertures are opposite. Destructive interference  between waves from adjacent apertures cancels some dif- fractione  ffects and increases the spatialr  esolution with whichs  uch patterns can be projected. A simple theory predicts  a  near doubling of resolution for illumination  with  partial incoherence u < 0.3, and  sub- stantial improvements in resolution for u < 0.7. Initial  results obtained with a phase-shifting mask patterned with  typical device structures by electron-beaml  ithography and  exposed using a Mann... Read More

Photolithographic patterning of polyethylene glycol hydrogels

Image The Journal Concentrates on Photolithography, Biomimetic, Patterning, and Polyethylene glycol. A simple, inexpensive photolithographic method for surface patterning deformable, solvated substrates is demonstrated using photoactive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-diacrylate hydrogels as model substrates. Photolithographic masks were prepared by printing the desired patterns onto transparencies using a laser jet printer. Precursor solutions containing monoacryloyl-PEG-peptide and photoinitiator were layered onto hydrogel surfaces. The acrylated moieties in the precursor solution were then conjugated in monolayers to specific hydrogel regions by exposure to UV light through the transparency mask. The effects of UV irradiation time and precursor solution concentration on the levels of immobilized peptide... Read More


Image A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. Virus can infect all types of forms. in the process of infecting a cell,Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, of the millions of types of viruses in the environment.The study of viruses is known as virology,a  subspeciality of microbiology. When not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, consisting of: (i) the genetic... Read More


Image Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Symptoms include fever, weakness and headache. Usually this begins one to seven days after exposure. In the bubonic form there is also swelling of lymph nodes, while in the septicemic form tissues may turn black and die, and in the pneumonic form shortness of breath, cough and chest pain may occur. Bubonic and septicemic plague are generally spread by flea bites or handling an infected animal. The pneumonitic form is generally spread between people through the air via infectious droplets. Diagnosis is typically by finding the bacterium in fluid. Those at high risk may be vaccinated. Those exposed to a case of pneumonic plague may be treated with preventive medication. If infected, treatment is with antibiotics and supportive... Read More


Image A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Diseases are often known to be medical conditions that are associated with specific symptoms and signs. A disease may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions. For example, internal dysfunctions of the immune system can produce a variety of different diseases, including various forms of immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity, allergies and autoimmune disorders. In humans, disease is often used more broadly to refer to any condition. Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, hereditary diseases (including both genetic diseases and non-genetic hereditary diseases), and physiological... Read More


Image Bug, a pathogen, any microorganism that causes illness (slang). Bug, one of several species of , such as Balmain bug, Moreton Bay bug. Insects of the order Hemiptera known as "true bugs. or sometimes its suborder Heteroptera. More broadly, any of many small, primarily terrestrial invertebrates, such as Insects, Arachnids, Myriapods, Worms, Terrestrial molluscs, A subset of arthropods, Dudley bug a trilobite. True bug, a group of insects. Bug, a slang word for a pathogen that makes organisms ill. Bug, a slang word for an insect, such as an ant or a beetle as given in the folloeing aspects The... Read More


Image Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them. This subdivision of microbiology involves the identification, classification, and characterization of bacterial species. Because of the similarity of thinking and working with microorganisms other than bacteria, such as protozoa, fungi, and viruses, there has been a tendency for the field of bacteriology to extend as microbiology. The terms were formerly often used interchangeably. However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science. Bacteriology is the study of bacteria and their relation to medicine.... Read More


Image An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disease or communicable disease, is an illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents (pathogens) including: Viruses and related agents such as viroids and prions, Bacteria Fungi, further subclassified into: Ascomycota, including yeasts such as Candida, filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Pneumocystis species, and dermatophytes, a group of organisms causing infection of skin and other superficial structures in humans. Basidiomycota,... Read More


Image Virology is the study of viral – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat– and virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology is considered to be a subfield of microbiology or of medicine. A major branch of virology is virus classification. Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they... Read More


Image Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, traditional medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist. Mycology branches into the field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, and the two disciplines remain closely related because the vast majority of plant pathogens are fungi. Historically, mycology was a branch of botany because, although fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to animals than... Read More

Obstetrics & gynecology

Image Obstetrics and gynaecology (British English) or obstetrics and gynecology (American English) is the medical specialty that encompasses the two subspecialties of obstetrics (covering pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period) and gynaecology (covering the health of the female reproductive system – vagina, uterus, ovaries, and breasts). It is commonly abbreviated as OB-GYN or OB/GYN in US English, and as obs and gynae or O&G in British English. Postgraduate training programs for both fields are usually combined, preparing the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist to be adept both at the care of female reproductive organs' health and at the management of pregnancy, although many doctors... Read More


Image Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means. It is usually not the natural state of a healthy adult, except notably among certain eusocial species (mostly haplodiploid insects). In humans, infertility is the inability to become pregnant after one year of intercourse without contraception involving a male and female partner. There are many causes of infertility, including some that medical intervention can treat. Estimates from 1997 suggest that worldwide about five percent of all heterosexual couples have an unresolved problem with infertility. Many more couples, however, experience involuntary childlessness for at least one... Read More

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Image Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin. Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer. PCOS is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include obesity, a lack of physical exercise, and a family history of someone with the condition. Diagnosis is based on two of the... Read More

Reproductive biology

Image Reproductive biology includes both sexual and asexual reproduction. Reproductive biology includes a wide number of fields: Reproductive systems, Endocrinology, Sexual development (Puberty), Sexual maturity, Reproduction, Fertility. Endocrinology - Human reproductive biology is primarily controlled through hormones, which send signals to the human reproductive structures to influence growth and maturation. These hormones are secreted by endocrine glands, and spread to different tissues in the human body. In humans, the pituitary gland synthesizes hormones used to control the activity of endocrine glands Reproductive systems-- Internal and external organs are included in the reproductive system. There are two reproductive systems including the male... Read More

Reproductive technology

Image Reproductive technology encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others. It is also termed Assisted Reproductive Technology, where it entails an array of appliances and procedures that enable the realization of safe, improved and healthier reproduction. While this is not true of all men and women, for an array of married couples, the ability to have children is vital. But through the technology, infertile couples have been provided with options that would allow them to conceive children. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the use of reproductive technology to... Read More

Sex organ

Image A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction. The reproductive organs together constitute the reproductive system. The testis in the male, and the ovary in the female, are called the primary sex organs. All others are called secondary sex organs, divided between the external sex organs—the genitals or genitalia, visible at birth in both sexes—and the internal sex organs. Mosses, ferns, and some similar plants have gametangia for reproductive organs, which are part of the gametophyte.The flowers of flowering plants produce pollen and egg cells, but the sex organs... Read More

Sexual dysfunction

Image Sexual dysfunction is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm. According to the DSM-5, sexual dysfunction requires a person to feel extreme distress and interpersonal strain for a minimum of six months (excluding substance or medication-induced sexual dysfunction).Sexual dysfunctions can have a profound impact on an individual's perceived quality of sexual life. The term sexual disorder may not only refer to physical sexual dysfunction, but to paraphilias as well; this is sometimes termed disorder of sexual preference. A thorough sexual history and assessment... Read More


Image Urogynecology or urogynaecology is a surgical sub-specialty of urology and gynecology. Urogynecology is a sub-specialty of Gynecology, and in some countries is also known as Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery. A urogynecologist manages clinical problems associated with dysfunction of the pelvic floor and bladder. Pelvic floor disorders affect the bladder, reproductive organs, and bowels. Common pelvic floor disorders include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and fecal incontinence. Increasingly, Urogynecologists are also responsible for the care of women who have experienced trauma to the perineum during childbirth. There is some crossover with the subspecialty of Female Urology - these doctors... Read More


Image Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel (a vein or an artery) is injured, the body uses platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot, or a piece of the clot, that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus. Thrombosis may occur in veins (venous thrombosis) or in arteries (arterial... Read More


Image Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, and the mechanism of coagulation. Such diseases might include hemophilia, blood clots (thrombus), other bleeding disorders, and blood cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist. Physicians specialized in... Read More


Image Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of blood cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal blood cells.These blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells. Symptoms may include bleeding and bruising, feeling tired, fever, and an increased risk of infections.These symptoms occur due to a lack of normal blood cells. Diagnosis is typically made by blood tests or bone marrow biopsy. The exact cause of leukemia is unknown.A combination of genetic factors and environmental (non-inherited) factors are believed to play a role. Risk factors include smoking,... Read More


Image Hemostasis or haemostasis is a process to prevent and stop bleeding, meaning to keep blood within a damaged blood vessel (the opposite of hemostasis is hemorrhage). It is the first stage of wound healing. This involves coagulation, blood changing from a liquid to a gel. Intact blood vessels are central to moderating blood's tendency to form clots. The endothelial cells of intact vessels prevent blood clotting with a heparin-like molecule and thrombomodulin and prevent platelet aggregation with nitric oxide and prostacyclin. When endothelial injury occurs, the endothelial cells stop secretion of coagulation and aggregation inhibitors and instead secrete von Willebrand... Read More


Image Hemoglobin (American English) or haemoglobin (British English) (/ˈhiːməˌɡloʊbɪn, ˈhɛ-, -moʊ-/), abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of almost all vertebrates (the exception being the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates. Hemoglobin in blood carries oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body (i.e. the tissues). There it releases the oxygen to permit aerobic respiration to provide energy to power the functions of the organism in the process called metabolism. A healthy individual has 12 to 20 grams of hemoglobin in every 100... Read More

Circulatory Systems

Image The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.The passage of lymph takes much longer than that of blood.Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart... Read More


Image Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),and contains proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are... Read More


Image Anemia (also spelled anaemia) is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood,or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.When anemia comes on slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath, and a poor ability to exercise.When the anemia comes on quickly, symptoms may include confusion, feeling like one is going to pass out, loss of consciousness, and increased thirst.Anemia must be significant before a person becomes noticeably pale. Additional symptoms may occur depending on the underlying cause. Anemia can be caused by... Read More


Image The thyroid, or thyroid gland, is an endocrine gland in the neck consisting of two connected lobes. The lower two thirds of the lobes are connected by a thin band of tissue called the thyroid isthmus. The thyroid is located at the front of the neck, below the Adam's apple. Microscopically, the functional unit of the thyroid gland is the spherical thyroid follicle, lined with follicular cells (thyrocytes), and occasional parafollicular cells that surround a lumen containing colloid. The thyroid gland secretes three hormones: the two thyroid hormones – triiodothyronine ( T3), and thyroxine (T4), and a peptide hormone, calcitonin.... Read More


Image Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. Obesity is most commonly caused by... Read More


Image Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes; the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. (The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above... Read More


Image A hormone is any member of a class of signaling molecules, produced by glands in multicellular organisms, that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior.Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of three classes: eicosanoids, steroids amino acid/protein derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins).The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. The term "hormone" is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signaling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling). Hormones serve to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities... Read More


Image Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide,a subcategory of carbohydrates. Glucose is mainly made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make cellulose in cell walls, which is the most abundant carbohydrate.In energy metabolism, glucose is the most important source of energy in all organisms. Glucose for metabolism is partially stored as a polymer, in plants mainly as starch and amylopectin and in animals as glycogen. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. The... Read More

Endocrine System

Image The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system comprising feedback loops of the hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system, regulating distant target organs. In humans, the major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands. In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. The study of the endocrine system and its disorders is known as endocrinology. Endocrinology is a branch of internal medicine. A number of glands that signal each other in sequence are usually referred to as an axis, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In... Read More


Image Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes and cognitive impairment. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.There... Read More

Blood Sugar Level

Image The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the concentration of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose is a simple sugar and approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of a 70-kilogram (150 lb) human at all times.The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis.Glucose is stored in skeletal muscle and liver cells in the form of glycogen;in fasted individuals, blood glucose is maintained at a constant level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle. In humans, a... Read More

Let the World know about your Opinions

Image Otology and Rhinology is creating a platform for publishing the justifiable opinions of the related to all the inconveniences of ENT in relation to the nCovid-19 with a single blind review. Such that these opinions may come in handy while working various elements of the prevention of ncovid-19. Your submissions are welcomed through online at or as an email attachment to at your earliest possible.... Read More

Working Ergonomics

Image During this ncovid-19 pandemic, due to the downfall of the World economy and also the global lockdown everyone are instructed carryout their work from home. We all are aware of the fact that people working from home encounters with the health issues resulted by the improper working ergonomics. In this context, the Journal of Ergonomics Research invites you to share your views and opinions in regard to this with us to make people aware and habituate the proper working ergonomics at any place and stay healthy. Your submissions are welcomed through online at or as an email attachment to... Read More

Urinary incontinence in injured women.

Image Urinary incontinence (UI), known also as excessive urination, is any spontaneous urinary leakage. It is a serious and distressing condition that can have a significant effect on quality of life. This has been recognized as an important concern in geriatric health care. The word enuresis is also used mainly in children to refer to urinary incontinence, such as nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting). Big risk factors include pelvic surgery, pregnancy, childbirth and menopause. Urinary incontinence is frequently the product of an underlying medical condition that is unreported to medical practitioners. Treatment methods vary from traditional counseling, behavior modification, bladder retraining, pelvic... Read More

Lung Transplantation

Image Lung diseases like Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Cystic fibrosis, Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension are resulting as a death prone inconveniences. There is no other alternative than lung transplantation to increase the lifespan. But this transplantation is a very complicated and comprises of several complications You are welcomed to share your opinions or submissions through online at or as an email attachment to at your earliest possible to have a rapid publication process with a single blind peer review process.... Read More

Reverse osmosis in water purifiers.

Image Reverse osmosis (RO) is a method of water purification using a partly permeable membrane to extract ions, unwanted molecules and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to resolve the osmotic strain, a colligative property powered by the solvent's possible chemical differences, a thermodynamic parameter. RO can extract many forms of chemical and biological (mainly bacteria) dissolved and suspended from water and is used in industrial processes as well as in the manufacture of portable water. Reverse osmosis is most widely known for its use in marine water purification, the removal of salt and... Read More

Dup15 Q syndrome

Image Dup15q syndrome is the common name for chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1 duplication syndrome. This is a neurodevelopmental disorder, caused by the partial duplication of Chromosome 15, that confers a strong risk for autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and intellectual disability.It is the most common genetic cause of autism, accounting for approximately 1-3% of cases.Dup15q syndrome includes both interstitial duplications and isodicentric duplications. Dup15q syndrome is caused by copy number variation (CNV) in which extra copies of certain genes are present in the genome. Two duplication types are commonly described in Dup15q syndrome, interstitial and isodicentric. Interstitial duplications are typically partial trisomies (i.e., one extra copy of each gene) and features these... Read More

Phenylketonuria in babies and adults

Image Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disease inherited from the parents of a person. This is due to mutations in the PAH gene resulting in low levels of the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme. This results in dietary phenylalanine rising to potentially harmful levels. It is autosomal recessive, indicating that for the disease to evolve, both copies of the gene have to be mutated. There are two main forms, classic PKU and variant PKU, depending on whether any enzyme activity remains. Those with one copy of the mutated gene usually have no symptoms. Babies should have a special formula with a small amount... Read More

Angelman syndrome

Image Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder that mainly affects the nervous system. Angelman syndrome is due to a lack of function of part of chromosome 15 inherited from a person's mother. Most of the time, it is due to a deletion or mutation of the UBE3A gene on that chromosome. Occasionally, it is due to inheriting two copies of chromosome 15 from a person's father and none from their mother. As the father's versions are inactivated by a process known as genomic imprinting, no functional version of the gene remains. Angelman syndrome is typically due to a new mutation rather than one inherited from a person's parents. It is named after British pediatrician Harry Angelman, who first described... Read More

Gait Patterns of Children with Idiopathic Hypotonia

Image The characteristics of idiopathic hypotonic gait are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical parameters that differentiate between children with hypotonia and an age-matched control group. Twelve children with idiopathic hypotonia, aged 6–13 years, participated in the study. Twenty-two children with no known disorders, aged 6–13 years, served as a control group. A 6-camera Vicon MCam and three force plates were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data during gait. Significant differences in the mean kinematic and kinetic values between groups were tested using a MANOVA. No significant group differences were found for any temporal-spatial variables.... Read More

Thiocyanate Blood Levels in Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS) Riot Control Gas Patients;the Egyptian Experience

Image This study aims to clarify the systemic toxic effects of chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS) and to confirm or reject the possibility of cyanide intoxication on the exposed patients. The study was conducted in PCC Ain Shams University, on exposed rioters during the November 2011 demonstrations to CS gas in Cairo. Control groups included light and moderate to heavy smokers as well as non-smokers. Plasma thiocyanate, the metabolite of cyanide was assayed in all groups. Plasma thiocyanate of victims of CS exposed gas showed no significant differences from light smoker volunteers and was not significantly different when followed up after 2 weeks. Clinical... Read More

The Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 1 (SREBP1): An Attractive Therapeutic Target in CNS Drug Discoveries

Image Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) residing transcription factors best known for their roles in regulation of genes mostly involved in the lipid biogenesis and metabolism in the liver and adipose tissues. This family of lipid transcription factors consists of SREBP1a, SREBP1c, and SREBP2. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) residing transcription factors best known for their roles in regulation of genes mostly involved in the lipid biogenesis and metabolism in the liver and adipose tissues. This family of lipid transcription factors consists of SREBP1a, SREBP1c, and SREBP2 .Activation of SREBPs require... Read More

An Unusual Homicide Involving Strangulation after Transdermal Fentanyl and Buprenorphine Intoxication

Image Fentanyl and buprenorphine are powerful opioids used for the induction of anesthesia as well as for severe pain management.Transdermal fentanyl and buprenorphine patches are widely used for outpatient management of chronic pain. However several cases of deaths connected with their administration have been described in literature. We present an unusual and exceptional homicidal death attributed to a combination system of acute transdermal opioids poisoning and strangulation. The concentration of the drugs and their metabolites in femoral blood and urine were capable of causing fatal intoxication. This manner of complex homicide raises the question of the importance of mechanisms involved. And... Read More


Image The Journal focuses on yoga, meditation, pranayama, asana, and bibliometric mind-body medicine. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, it has also been used clinically as a therapeutic intervention. A bibliometric analysis on the biomedical journal literature involving research on the clinical application of yoga has revealed an increase in publication frequency over the past 3 decades with a substantial and growing use of randomized controlled trials. Types of medical conditions have included psychopathological (e.g. depression, anxiety), cardiovascular (e.g. hypertension, heart disease), respiratory (e.g. asthma), diabetes and a variety of others. A majority of this research has been conducted by Indian... Read More

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Related Pathological Processes

Image The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a pivotal role in lipid and protein biosynthesis as well as calcium store regulation, which determines its essential role in cell function. Hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, perturbation of redox status and aberrant calcium regulation can all trigger the ER stress response, which is mediated through three main sensors, namely inositol requiring element-1 (IRE-1), protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). This review explores the interaction of ER stress and ER stress-associated pathological processes, including inflammation, apoptosis, aberrant autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction and hypoxic responses. In addition, the correlation of ER stress with lipid... Read More

Hatha Yoga Therapy Management of Urologic Disorders

Image Hatha Yoga (often referred to “yoga”) is an ancient type of physical and mental exercise that has been used as a therapeutic modality in traditional Indian medicine for centuries. Yoga as a complementary modality in western medicine is more recent and continues to grow. Chronic urologic disorders are often difficult to diagnose because their presentation mimic other medical conditions and are often a diagnosis of exclusion. Treatment is also frustrating because the more traditional treatments are often unsuccessful in managing chronic disorders. Health care practitioners are often forced to look elsewhere for other modalities to provide pain relief and improve... Read More

Transient elastography: a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy in evaluation of portal hypertension in chronic liver disease

Image The Journal focuses on diagnostic accuracy, portal hypertension, sensitivity, specificity, and transient elastography.Transient elastography (TE), as a non-invasive method, has been studied for evaluation of portal hypertension in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) with variable results. We studied the performance of TE for detection of significant portal hypertension, oesophageal varices and large oesophageal varices using meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and ISI web of Knowledge were searched. The studies published in English relating to the diagnostic value of TE for significant portal hypertension, oesophageal varices and large oesophageal varices in patients with CLD were collected. Results: A total... Read More

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Image The Journal focuses on  Steatosis, Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, Insulin resistance, Ursodeoxycholic acid, and Betaine. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a broad clinicopathologic spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may advance to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Steatosis alone does not appear to be progressive. The prevalence of NAFLD averages 20% and that of NASH, 2% to 3%, making these conditions the most common liver diseases in the United States. NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance, which may be evident clinically with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia. The pathogenesis of NAFLD consists of hepatic fat accumulation and... Read More

Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, the Blood-Brain Barrier, and Central Nervous System Drug Discovery

Image The Journal focuses on Blood-brain barrier, CNS drug discovery, DMPK, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, microdialysis, MDCK cells, in silico prediction of brain permeation, aging, and brain disorders.The worldwide market for therapies for CNS disorders is worth more than $50 billion and is set to grow substantially in the years ahead. This is because: 1) the incidence of many CNS disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease) increase exponentially after age 65 and 2) the number of people in the world over 65 is about to increase sharply because of a marked rise in fertility after World War II. However, CNS research... Read More


Image The intrinsic clearances (CLint) of 50 neutral and basic marketed drugs were determined in fresh human hepatocytes and the data used to predict human in vivo hepatic metabolic clearance (CLmet). A statistically significant correlation between scaled CLmet and actual CLmet was observed (r2  0.48, p < 0.05), and for 73% of the drugs studied,scaledclearanceswerewithin2-foldoftheactualclearance. These data have shown that CLint data generated in human hepatocytes can be used to provide estimates of human hepatic CLmet for both phase I and phase II processes. In addition, the utility of commercial and in-house cryopreserved hepatocytes was assessed by comparing with data... Read More

Model-Driven Development of Reconfigurable Mechatronic Systems with MECHATRONIC UML

Image Today, advanced technical systems are complex, reconfigurable mechatronic systems where most control and reconfiguration functionality isrealized in software. A number of requirements have to be satisfied in order to apply the model-driven development approach and the UML for mechatronic systems: The UML design models must support the specification of the required hard real-time event processing. The real-time coordination in the UML models must embed the continuous control behavior in form of feedback-controllers to allow for the specification of discrete and continuous hybrid systems. Advanced solutions further require the dynamic exchange of feedback controllers at runtime (reconfiguration). Thus, a modeling of... Read More

Mechatronic design of NAO humanoid

Image The mechatronic design of the autonomous humanoid robot called NAO that is built by the French company Aldebaran-Robotics. With its height of 0.57 m and its weight about 4.5 kg, this innovative robot is lightweight and compact. It distinguishes itself from existing humanoids thanks to its pelvis kinematics design, its proprietary actuation system based on brush DC motors, its electronic, computer and distributedsoftwarearchitectures.Thisrobothasbeendesigned to be affordable without sacrificing quality and performance. It is an open and easy-to-handle platform. The comprehensive and functional design is one of the reasons that helped select NAO to replace the AIBO quadrupeds in the 2008... Read More

Bone marrow transplantation.

Image Spongy tissue between some of your bones, such as the hip and thigh bones is the bone marrow. It has stem cells. The stem cells will grow into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, white blood cells that battle infections, and blood clotting platelets that help. A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure performed to replace bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease, infection, or chemotherapy. The process involves transplanting stem cells from the blood, which migrate to the bone marrow where new blood cells are formed and new marrow development encouraged.... Read More

Electrochemistry for electrical batteries.

Image Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that explores the relationship between electricity as an observable and quantitative phenomenon and recognizable chemical change, either considering electricity as the result of a chemical change or vice versa. Electrochemistry has numerous uses particularly in industry. Cell concepts are used for producing electric batteries. A battery is a system that stores chemical energy in science and technology, and makes it available in an electrical form. Contribute your work related to chemistry and chemical engineering through email: or online link you can also go for membership. To know more visit our website... Read More

Cervical pain cause and Treatment.

Image Neck pain may have causes not related to underlying illness. Examples include excessive straining (looking up or down), uncomfortable sleeping, pain, chiropractic manipulation or heavy jewelry wear. Cervical pain is the discomfort caused by cervical or osteoarthritis spondylolysis or. This disorder involves changes in the neck-connected bones, discs or joints. The main causes of cervical pain are due to the wear and tear of cartilages and bones, and are most frequently seen in aging individuals. Submit your submission here Check website for more details you can also go for membership Email us at: Read More

Journal of Otology Rhinology

Image Journal of Otology & Rhinology (JOR) is a hybrid open access international journal which is distributed all over the globe. The Journal focuses on audiology, speech therapy, oral and neck oncology, neurotology, otolaryngology and Sleep Apnea disorders. Otology is a branch of medicine which studies normal and pathological anatomy and physiology of the ear (hearing and vestibular sensory systems and related structures and functions) as well as their diseases, diagnosis and treatment. Rhinology refers to a subspecialty within the field of otolaryngology (ENT) focused on the treatment of diseases and disorders affecting the nasal cavity and sinuses. This... Read More

Awareness and knowledge of physical therapy among adult populations in Saudi Arabia.

Image The aim of this study is to ascertain general public awareness and knowledge of physiotherapy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The authors built a cross-sectional sample using an auto-administered questionnaire. The research was conducted between June and August 2018 where the questionnaire was planted online and invitation to participate in the research along with an description of its significance, and a link to the questionnaire was sent to individuals via various social media platforms. To know more follow Contribute your work Read More

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Image The Journal focuses on effects, fate, green pharmacy, occurrence, risk, sustainable pharmacy.Pharmaceuticalsarechemicalsthatareusedbecauseoftheirbiological activity.Theyareoftenexcretedunchangedandcanreachtheenvironment. Throughout developed countries, the pharmaceutical concentrations in the aquatic environment are in the same range (μgL −1 and below); however, it is not clear whether this holds for less-developed countries too. The health risks of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)remainpoorlyunderstood.Althoughtherearenoknownshorttermeffectsonhumans,long-termeffectscannotberuledoutuntilthere is more research. The significance of metabolites and transformation productsresultingfromtheparentAPIsisnotyetknown.Awarenessof thepresenceofpharmaceuticalsintheenvironment,coupledwithsome evidence of effects, suggests that precautionary management action to reduce the release of pharmaceuticals to the environment should be considered. As for effluent treatment, no technology works well for all compounds. Advanced effluent treatment is not sustainable because... Read More

Fluorine in Pharmaceuticals: Looking Beyond Intuition

Image Fluorine substituents have become a widespread and important drug component, their introduction facilitated by the development of safe and selective fluorinating agents. Organofluorine affects nearly all physical and adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties of a lead compound. Its inductive effects are relatively well understood, enhancing bioavailability, for example, by reducing the basicity of neighboring amines. In contrast, exploration of the specific influence of carbon-fluorine single bonds on docking interactions, whether through direct contact with the protein or through stereoelectronic effects on molecular conformation of the drug, has only recently begun. Here, we review experimental progress in this vein and... Read More

Biology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Image Once a poorly defined pathologic oddity, in recent years, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has emerged as a distinct oncogenetic entity that is now center stage in clinical trials of kinase-targeted therapies. This review charts the rapid progress that has established GIST as a model for understanding the role of oncogenic kinase mutations in human tumorigenesis. Approximately 80% to 85% of GISTs harbor activating mutations of the KIT tyrosine kinase. In a series of 322 GISTs (including 140 previously published cases) studied by the authors in detail, mutations in the KIT gene occurred with decreasing frequency in exons 11 (66.1%), 9... Read More

Theoretical and experimental work on Powdered Material Granulation Processes in Cylindrical Granulator.

Image The problems of experimental and theoretical investigation and analysis of granulometric composition of granules in granulation processes of powdered superphosphates in drum apparatus are considered. The theoretical investigation has been constructed on analytical decision of Fokker-Planck stochastic equation defining evolution of the distribution function of granules on sizes. Know more about it Contribute your work related to chemistry and chemical engineering through email: or online link you can also go for membership.... Read More

Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders

Image The Journal focuses on  infant vomiting, cyclic vomiting syndrome, functional dyspepsia in children, irritable bowel syndrome in children, functional abdominal pain in children, functional diarrhea in children, functional constipation in children, and Rome II.This is the first attempt at defining criteriaforfunctionalgastrointestinaldisorders (FGIDs) in infancy,childhood,and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected diVers from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted.Because the child is still... Read More


Image Research that studies the relationship between management control systems (MCS) and business strategy. Empirical research studies that use contingency approaches and case study applica- tions are examin ed focusing on specific aspects of MCS and their relationship with strategy. These aspects include cost control orientation, performance evaluation and reward systems, the effect of resource shar- ing, the role of MCS in influencing strategic change and the choice of interactive and diagnostic controls. More contemporary approaches to the relationship between performance measurement systems and strat- egy are also considered. It is concluded that our knowledge of the relationship between MCS and... Read More

Caterpillar-Like Robot

Image A tiny, caterpillar-like robot is being developed by researchers in China — to help deliver therapeutic drugs inside the human body. With soft, flexible legs similar to a real caterpillar, it can carry heavy-weight loads 100 times heavier than itself — the equivalent strength of a human able to lift a 26 seat mini-bus. Plus it can adapt to difficult + uneven terrain. The prototype could pave the way for advances in bio-medicine: such as drug delivery. Before conducting tests in animals — and eventually in humans — the research team is experimenting with new shapes, finding a bio-degradable material for... Read More

Proactive office ergonomics can increase job satisfaction, employee retention

Image As the amount of time employees spend at their desks increases, so does musculoskeletal discomfort and other health issues associated with the office environment. A research demonstrates that a comprehensive and proactive workplace ergonomics program can help to prevent discomfort and injury. You are invited to share your relevant works at for enabling us to take it to the readers all around the world by publishing it in the Journal of Ergonomics Research.... Read More

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Image ALS causes a slow weakening of the motor neurons, and then death. Motor nerves spread through the entire body from the brain to the spinal cord to muscles. They stop sending signals to the muscles when motor neurons are impaired, so that the muscles can't function. In 5% to 10% of citizens ALS is hereditary. ALS is the most common degenerative disease of motor neuron system. While ALS is incurable and fatal, care may prolong the duration and positive quality of life for patients, with median survival of 3 years. Drugs and therapy can slow down ALS and minimize pain,... Read More


Image Codeine Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, coughing, and diarrhea.It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen.Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults.In Europe, it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under 12 years of age.It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour, with maximum effect at two hours. Its effects last for about four to six... Read More


Image MORPHIINE Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals, including humans. It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain. It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain.[6] It is frequently used for pain from myocardial infarction and during labor.[6] It can be given by mouth, by injection into a muscle, by injection under the skin, intravenously, injection into the space around the spinal cord, or rectally.Maximum effect is reached after about 20 minutes when given intravenously and after 60 miNutes... Read More

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Image   The first class on converters has been called a way of enticing control and electronics students into the power area via the "back door". The power electronics field is quite broad, and includes fundamentals in the areas of  ● Converter circuits and electronics  ● Control systems  ● Magnetics  ● Power applications  ● Design-oriented analysis   For subscription or submission of articles  Contact Or you can Contact on +1-579-679-8957.... Read More

Meditation States and Traits: EEG, ERP, and Neuroimaging Studies

Image Neuroelectric and imaging studies of meditation are reviewed. Electroencephalographic measures indi￾cate an overall slowing subsequent to meditation, with theta and alpha activation related to proficiency of practice. Sensory evoked potential assessment of concentrative meditation yields amplitude and latency changes for some components and practices. Cognitive event-related potential evaluation of  meditation implies that practice changes attentional allocation. Neuroimaging studies indicate increased regional cerebral blood flow measures during meditation. Taken together, meditation appears to reflect changes in anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal areas. Neurophysiological meditative state and trait effects are variable but are beginning to demonstrate consistent outcomes for research and clinical applications. Psychological and... Read More


Image The Journal focuses on Bioactive compound, Plant Extraction, Isolation, Herbal preparations, and Natural products.Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization... Read More

Resident Attrition in Post Graduate Surgical Training (APJOT)

Image Resident attrition is a significant issue facing graduate surgical education, with broad implications for trainees, their families, educators, and society at large. Resident attrition is costly and often may represent a poor initial selection process, inadequate training in medical school, or insufficient feedback and mentoring while the resident is in the postgraduate program. Promoting an environment that encourages mentorship may be an important first step to help residents maximize their professional potential. The successful mentoring of surgical residents is crucial because the entire specialty depends on how today’s residents face tomorrow’s challenges. Residency is known to be... Read More

Recent Developments on Conquering Zika

Image Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that Zika, a virus, which has been linked to birth defects and neurological complications, no longer constitutes an international emergency. However, it still remains a threat which calls for a long term efforts to address the issue through development of vaccines. Several ongoing clinical trials led by government and private pharmaceutical companies have shown a great promise in the treatment of Zika. Apart from these trials, there are also ongoing research on understanding the virus better, its transmission mode and future possibility of leveraging it in other disease treatments. This article provides... Read More

Trauma (APJOT)

Image Trauma is the response to a deeply distressing or disturbing event that overwhelms an individual’s ability to cope, causes feelings of helplessness, diminishes their sense of self and their ability to feel the full range of emotions and experiences. It does not discriminate and it is pervasive throughout the world. A World Mental Health survey conducted by the World Health Organization found that at least a third of the more than 125,000 people surveyed in 26 different countries had experienced trauma. That number rose to 70% when the group was limited to people experiencing core disorders as defined by the... Read More

Study of Analytical chemistry

Image Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice, separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analyticQualitative analysis identifies analytics, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods. Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odour, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis... Read More

Microbial Biosensor

Image A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of... Read More

Pacemakers for Children

Image A permanent pacemaker is a small device that is implanted under the skin and sends electrical signals to start or regulate a slow heartbeat.  A permanent pacemaker may be used to stimulate the heartbeat if the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial, or SA, node) is not functioning properly, has developed an abnormal heart rate or rhythm, or if the electrical pathways are blocked. Children's pacemakers may be placed under the skin in one of several locations. Young children (infants, toddler, preschool, and young school-aged children) often have the pacemaker generator placed in the abdomen, since the fatty tissue found there... Read More


Image Narcotics The term narcotic originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties, and euphoric properties as well. In the United States, it has since become associated with opiates and opioids, commonly morphine and heroin, as well as derivatives of many of the compounds found within raw opium latex. The primary three are morphine, codeine, and thebaine (while thebaine itself is only very mildly psychoactive, it is a crucial precursor in the vast majority of semi-synthetic opioids, such as oxycodone or hydrocodone). Legally speaking, the term "narcotic" may be imprecisely defined and typically has negative connotations.When used in a legal context in the U.S., a narcotic drug is one that is totally prohibited, such as heroin, or one that... Read More


Image ANESTHETIZED Anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness that is induced for medical purposes. It may include some or all of analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), and unconsciousness. A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized. Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would otherwise cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient, or would otherwise be technically unfeasible. Three broad categories of anesthesia exist: General anesthesia suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation, using either injected or inhaled drugs. Sedation suppresses the... Read More

Bleeding Diathesis

Image In medicine bleeding diathesis is an unusual susceptibility to bleed mostly due to hypocoagulability (a condition of irregular and slow blood clotting), in turn caused by a coagulopathy (a defect in the system of coagulation). Therefore, this may result in the reduction of platelets being produced and leads to excessive bleeding. Several types of coagulopathy are distinguished, ranging from mild to lethal. Coagulopathy can be caused by thinning of the skin, such that the skin is weakened and is bruised easily and frequently without any trauma or injury to the body. Also, coagulopathy can be contributed by... Read More


Image Transfusion medicine is the branch of medicine that encompasses all aspects of the transfusion of blood and blood components including aspects related to hemovigilance. It includes issues of blood donation, immunohematology and other laboratory testing for transfusion-transmitted diseases, management and monitoring of clinical transfusion practices, patient blood management, therapeutic apheresis, stem cell collections, cellular therapy, and coagulation. The blood donor centre is the facility that collects blood components from screened blood donors, either whole blood or separate components such as plasma or platelets only via apheresis. These blood components are then transported to a central location for... Read More


Image Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell that normally produces antibodies. Often, no symptoms are noticed initially. As it progresses, bone pain, bleeding, frequent infections, and anaemia may occur. Complications may include amyloidosis. Multiple myeloma is considered treatable, but generally incurable. Remissions may be brought about with steroids, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplant. Bisphosphonates and radiation therapy are sometimes used to reduce pain from bone lesions. The cause of multiple myeloma is unknown. Risk factors include obesity, radiation exposure, family history, and... Read More

Circulatory System

Image The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph. The passage of lymph takes much longer than that of blood. Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that... Read More

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Image Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood. It may be autologous (the patient's own stem cells are used), allogeneic (the stem cells come from a donor) or syngeneic (from an identical twin). It is most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow, such as multiple myeloma or leukaemia. In these cases, the recipient's immune system is usually destroyed with radiation or chemotherapy before the transplantation. Infection and graft-versus-host disease are major complications of allogeneic HSCT.... Read More


Image Coagulation, also known as clotting, is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion and aggregation of platelets, as well as deposition and maturation of fibrin. The coagulation cascade of secondary hemostasis has two initial pathways which lead to fibrin formation. These are the contact activation pathway , and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway), which both lead to the same... Read More


Image Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel (a vein or an artery) is injured, the body uses platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot, or a piece of the clot, that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus. Thrombosis may occur in veins or in arteries... Read More


Image Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of blood cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal blood cells. These blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells. Symptoms may include bleeding and bruising, feeling tired, fever, and an increased risk of infections. These symptoms occur due to a lack of normal blood cells. Diagnosis is typically made by blood tests or bone marrow biopsy. The exact cause of leukemia is unknown. A combination of genetic factors and environmental (non-inherited) factors are believed to play... Read More

Physical Chemistry

Image Physical chemistry is the study of how matter behaves on a molecular and atomic level and how chemical reactions occur. Based on their analyses, physical chemists may develop new theories, such as how complex structures are formed. Physical chemists often work closely with materials scientists to research and develop potential uses for new materials. Physical chemistry has traditionally given students broad training, and positioned them to work in a variety of scientific careers. Many people trained as physical chemists ultimately work as analytical chemists, where they work to understand the fundamental process involved in analytical techniques, allowing them to enhance... Read More

Advances in Food Bioprocess Technology

Image Advances in Food Bioprocess Technology provide us effective and timely material about cutting-edge high original papers in chemical engineering and sciences for all types of food products. Advances in Food Bioprocess Technology journals covers and examines the processing technology for ripening, quality, agriculture, horticulture products. A negative, public reaction is growing over the addition of chemical preservatives to liquid foods and beverages to extend their shelf life and to protect against foodborne pathogens. As a physical method, ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation has a positive consumer image and is of interest to the food industry as a low cost non-thermal method... Read More

Heart Transplantation in Children

Image What Is a Heart Transplant? A heart transplant is a surgery in which doctors remove a person's sick heart and replace it with a healthy donor heart. Transplants are done when a child's heart does not work well and he or she won't survive without a new one. Doctors sometimes call this heart failure, or end-stage pediatric heart disease. They usually first try to treat heart failure with medicine, surgery,  or other procedures. If those don't work, a child might need a heart transplant. Submit  here. Transplanted hearts come from organ donors who have agreed (or their guardians have... Read More

Organic chemistry

Image Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-containing compounds, which include not only hydrocarbons but also compounds with any number of other elements, including hydrogen (most compounds contain at least one carbon–hydrogen bond), nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur. Submit here. This branch of chemistry was originally limited to compounds produced by living organisms but has been broadened to include human-made substances such as plastics. The range of application of organic compounds is enormous and also includes, but is not limited to, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, food, explosives, paints, and cosmetics.... Read More


Image Antibodies, also referred to as immunoglobulins, are glycoproteins naturally produced in response to invading foreign particles (antigens) such as microorganisms and viruses. As such, they play a critical role in the immune system’s defense against infection and disease. Antigens recognized and bound by antibodies can be proteins such as receptors expressed on cancer cells, sugars on bacterial and viral cell surfaces, hormones, chemical compounds, or nucleic acid structures. The region of an antigen that interacts with an antibody is called the epitope. Submit here. Recombinant Antibody Technology Advances in the understanding of antibody structure and function, bacteriophage replication,... Read More

Congenital Heart Defects

Image Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common type of birth defect. As medical care and treatment have advanced, babies with a CHD are living longer and healthier lives. Learn more facts about CHDs below. CHDs are present at birth and can affect the structure of a baby’s heart and the way it works. They can affect how blood flows through the heart and out to the rest of the body. CHDs can vary from mild (such as a small hole in the heart) to severe (such as missing or poorly formed parts of the heart).Submit here. About... Read More


Image Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with all facets of the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) into a safe and effective medication. Pharmaceutics is the science of dosage form design. Pharmaceutics deals with the formulation of a pure drug substance into a dosage form. Pharmaceutics is a subject that is included in all four years of B.Pharm. Apart from this, Pharmaceutics department handles the following subjects: Physical Pharmacy: This subject deals with application of physical chemical principles to problems in the pharmaceutical sciences. Submit here Pharmaceutical Engineering: Is the study of... Read More


Image Most chemical changes in a cell result from chains and cycles of biochemical reactions, with each step controlled by a separate, specific enzyme Metabolism is the totality of the chemical reactions which occur within a cell, and can be divided into two types: Anabolic reactions involve the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones and usually require energy to form new bonds (endergonic) Catabolic reactions involve the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones and usually release energy from breaking bonds (exergonic). Submit here   Energy Transformations Energy in living cells is stored and released... Read More


Image What Is Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, or even death. Major Risk Factors Unhealthy blood cholesterol levels. This includes high LDL cholesterol (sometimes called "bad" cholesterol) and low... Read More


Image Virology is the study of viral – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat and virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology is considered to be a subfield of microbiology or of medicine. A major branch of virology is virus classification. Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they... Read More


Image A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of a single cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of multiple cells. Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea. Many eukaryotes are multicellular, but the group includes the protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. Unicellular organisms are thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago Although some prokaryotes live in colonies, they are not specialised cells with differing functions. These organisms live together, and each cell... Read More


Image Archaeal cells have unique properties separating them from the other two domains, Bacteria and Eukaryota. Archaea are further divided into multiple recognized phyla. Classification is difficult because most have not been isolated in the laboratory and have only been detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in samples from their environment. Archaea and bacteria are generally similar in size and shape, although a few archaea have very different shapes, such as the flat and square cells of Haloquadratum walsbyi. Despite this morphological similarity to bacteria, archaea possess genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of... Read More


Image Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms. All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium You can share your ideas & comments further at:  ... Read More


Image Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very... Read More


Image characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesize. Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores (a few of which are flagellated), which may travel through the air or water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems. These and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), which share a... Read More


Image Osteoporosis is a disease in which bone weakening increases the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly. Bones that commonly break include the vertebrae in the spine, the bones of the forearm, and the hip. Until a broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to such a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. After a broken bone, Chronic pain and a decreased ability to carry out normal activities may occur. Prevention of osteoporosis includes a proper diet during childhood and efforts to avoid medications that increase the rate of bone loss. Efforts to prevent... Read More


Image Insulin  is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of carbohydrates, especially glucose from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.... Read More

Thyroid gland

Image The thyroid, or thyroid gland, is an endocrine gland in the neck consisting of two connected lobes. The lower two thirds of the lobes are connected by a thin band of tissue called the thyroid isthmus. The thyroid is located at the front of the neck, below the Adam's apple. Microscopically, the functional unit of the thyroid gland is the spherical thyroid follicle, lined with follicular cells, and occasional Para follicular cells that surround a lumen containing colloid. The thyroid gland secretes three hormones: the two thyroid hormones – triiodothyronine, and thyroxin, and a peptide hormone, calcitonin.... Read More


Image Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine... Read More


Image A hormone is any member of a class of signaling molecules, produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior. Hormones serve to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress induction, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood manipulation. Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell, resulting in a change in cell function. Hormone secretion may occur in many tissues.... Read More


Image Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes and cognitive impairment The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight  loss, polyuria , polydipsia, and polyphagia. Symptoms may develop rapidly  in type 1 diabetes, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 diabetes. Other symptoms of diabetes include weight loss... Read More


Image Hyperglycemia is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl). For diabetics, glucose levels that are considered to be too hyperglycemic can vary from person to person, mainly due to the person's renal threshold of glucose and overall glucose tolerance. The degree of hyperglycemia can change over time depending on the metabolic cause, for example, impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose, and it can depend on treatment. Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal and cause pathological and functional changes for significant... Read More

Endocrine glands

Image Endocrine glands  Endocrine glands are ductless glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The pituitary gland hangs from the base of the brain by the pituitary stalk, and is enclosed by bone. It consists of a hormone-producing glandular portion the anterior pituitary and a neural portion the posterior pituitary, which is an extension of the hypothalamus. Four of the six anterior pituitary hormones are tropic hormones that regulate the function of other endocrine organs. Most anterior pituitary hormones exhibit a diurnal rhythm of release, which is subject to modification by stimuli influencing the hypothalamus.... Read More

Systematic Tissue Specific Approach for Examination and Conservative Management of Shoulder Pain.

Image The use of examination procedures to identify specific tissue involvement in painful conditions is a critical element in musculoskeletal physical therapy practice. Physical therapists can benefit from this approach to patient examination because it allows them to focus treatments on the specific causes of symptoms. The purpose of this case study is to describe a systematic approach to examination and treatment of shoulder pain through the identification of specific pain generators. The patient presented in this case had a five month onset of left anteriolateral shoulder pain. Based on the examination findings the physical therapy treatment diagnosis was subscapularis tendinopathy... Read More

Application of single cell epigenomics to cancer research and emerging techniques in the field.

Image Epigenomics encompasses studies of the chemical modifications of genomic DNA and associated histones, interactions between genomic DNA sequences and proteins, the dynamics of the chromosomal conformation, the functional relationships between these epigenetic events, and the regulatory impacts of these epigenetic events on gene expression in cells. In comparison to current techniques that are only capable of characterizing average epigenomics features across bulk cell ensembles, singlecell epigenomics methodologies are emerging as powerful new techniques to study cellular plasticity and heterogeneity, as seen in stem cells and cancer. Here we summarize available techniques for studies of single-cell epigenomics, review their current applications... Read More

Animal fancy

Image Animal fancy is a hobby involving the appreciation, promotion, or breeding of pet or domestic animals. Fancy may include ownership, showing, animal sports and other competitions, and breeding. Hobbyists may simply collect specimens of the animal in appropriate enclosures (vivaria), such as an aquarium, terrarium, or aviary. Some fanciers keep hobby farms, or menageries (private zoos). There are many animal fancy clubs and associations in the world, which cater to everything from pigeons to Irish Wolfhounds. Fanciers and fancierdom may collectively be referred to as the fancy for that kind of animal, e.g. the cat fancy. Animal-fancy hobbies... Read More

Animal breeding

Image Animal breeding is the process of selective mating of animals with desirable genetic traits, to maintain or enhance these traits in future generations. For livestock, this involves estimation of the genetic value of individuals for traits including growth rate and yield of products such as eggs, milk or meat. Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation of the genetic value of livestock. Selecting for breeding animals with superior EBV in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, or wool production, or with other desirable traits has revolutionized livestock production throughout the entire world. Animal breeding... Read More

Simple Electrolytic Redox Systems Formulation based on generalized electron balance (GEB) / generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES).

Image Redox reactions are characterized by the transfer of electrons between chemical species, (the reducing agent) undergoing oxidation (losing electrons) and (the oxidizing agent) undergoes reduction (gains electrons). The linear combination f12 = 2?f(O) – f(H) of elemental balances: f1 = f(H) for H, and f2 = f(O) for O is the basis to formulate the generalized electron balance (GEB) for electrolytic redox systems according to Approach II to GEB, realized within the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) as GATES/GEB. Together with charge balance (f0 = ChB) and K–2 elemental/core balances: f3,…,fK, the f12 completes the set of K balances... Read More

Exotic Animals

Image These odd animals can truly make a great pet, but make sure to do lots of your own research. The capybara is one of the largest rodents in the world and can weigh up to 140 pounds, but they sure are cute! They're semi-aquatic animals, so if you're looking to adopt a capybara, they'll definitely need access to water in order to swim around. Although mostly adorable and sweet, capybaras can be a challenging pet. They do better in groups as they are extremely social animals, so pet owners should avoid getting a single capybara. This semi-aquatic... Read More

Fused deposition modeling (FDM)

Image Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3DP process that utilizes filament-type thermoplastics with a printer head that is capable of heating the filament to melting temperatures to create a structure from the bottom up. The printer nozzle moves back and forth according to the design described in the STL file format, adding layer by layer the filament until the structure is complete. The FDM is a precursor to the most widely used bioprinting technique, extrusion-based printing. The technologies are very similar except that extrusion printing does not usually need a heating element as most bioinks will not need to be... Read More