Pudendal nerve

Image The pudendal nerve is the main nerve of the perineum. It carries sensation from the external genitalia of both sexes and the skin around the anus and perineum, as well the motor supply to various pelvic muscles, including the male or female external urethral sphincter and the external anal sphincter. If damaged, most commonly by childbirth, lesions may cause sensory loss or fecal incontinence. The nerve may be temporarily blocked as part of an anaesthetic procedure. The pudendal canal that carries the pudendal nerve is also known by the eponymous term "Alcock's canal", after Benjamin Alcock, an Irish... Read More


Image Excretion is a process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism. In vertebrates this is primarily carried out by the lungs, kidneys and skin. This is in contrast with secretion, where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell. Excretion is an essential process in all forms of life. For example, in mammals urine is expelled through the urethra, which is part of the excretory system. In unicellular organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell. During life activities such as cellular respiration, several chemical reactions take place in the... Read More

Genital herpes

Image Genital herpes is an infection by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the genitals. Most people either have no or mild symptoms and thus do not know they are infected. When symptoms do occur, they typically include small blisters that break open to form painful ulcers. Flu-like symptoms, such as fever, aching, or swollen lymph nodes, may also occur. Onset is typically around 4 days after exposure with symptoms lasting up to 4 weeks. Once infected further outbreaks may occur but are generally milder. The disease is typically spread by direct genital contact with the skin surface or... Read More

Human sexuality

Image Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. This involves biological, erotic, physical, emotional, social, or spiritual feelings and behaviors. Because it is a broad term, which has varied with historical contexts over time, it lacks a precise definition. The biological and physical aspects of sexuality largely concern the human reproductive functions, including the human sexual response cycle. Someone's sexual orientation is their pattern of sexual interest in the opposite or same sex.  Physical and emotional aspects of sexuality include bonds between individuals that are expressed through profound feelings or physical manifestations of love, trust,... Read More

Human reproductive system

Image The human reproductive system includes the male reproductive system which functions to produce and deposit sperm; and the female reproductive system which functions to produce egg cells, and to protect and nourich the fetus until birth. Humans have a high level of sexual differentiation. In addition to differences in nearly every reproductive organ, there are numerous differences in typical secondary sex characteristics. Human reproduction usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. In this process, the male inserts his penis into the female's vagina and ejaculates semen, which contains sperm. A small proportion of the sperm pass through the... Read More


Image Testicle or testis (plural testes) is the male reproductive gland or gonad in all animals, including humans. It is homologous to the female ovary. The functions of the testes are to produce both sperm and androgens, primarily testosterone. Testosterone release is controlled by the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone; whereas sperm production is controlled both by the anterior pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone and gonadal testosterone. The testes are covered by a tough membranous shell called the tunica albuginea. Within the testes are very fine coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules. The tubules are lined with a layer of cells (germ cells)... Read More

Female reproductive system

Image The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In humans, the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes, and to carry a foetus to full term. The internal sex organs are the uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the foetus. The uterus also produces vaginal and uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce the ova (egg... Read More

Male reproductive system

Image The male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside of the body and around the pelvic region of a male that contribute towards the reproduction process. The primary direct function of the male reproductive system is to provide the male sperm for fertilization of the ovum. The major reproductive organs of the male can be grouped into three categories. The first category is sperm production and storage. Production takes place in the testes which are housed in the temperature regulating scrotum, immature sperm then travel to the epididymis for development and storage. The second categories are... Read More

Reproductive organs

Image The reproductive system of an organism, also known as the genital system, is the biological system made up of all the anatomical organs involved in sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences. These differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness of the offspring. The human reproductive system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During this process, the... Read More


Image The vulva (plural vulvas or vulvae; derived from Latin for wrapper or covering) consists of the external female sex organs. The vulva includes the mons pubis (or mons veneris), labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibular bulbs, vulval vestibule, urinary meatus, the vaginal opening, hymen, and Bartholin's and Skene's vestibular glands. The urinary meatus is also included as it opens into the vulval vestibule. Other features of the vulva include the pudendal cleft, sebaceous glands, the urogenital triangle (anterior part of the perineum), and pubic hair. The vulva includes the entrance to the vagina, which leads to the uterus,... Read More


Image Some ethnic groups practice ritual mutilation, scarification, burning, flagellation, tattooing, or wheeling, as part of a rite of passage. In some cases, the term may apply to treatment of dead bodies, such as soldiers mutilated after they have been killed by an enemy. The traditional Chinese practices of língchí and foot binding are forms of mutilation. One form of mutilation that has captured the imagination of Westerners is the "long-neck" people, a sub-group of the Karen known as the Padaung where women wear brass rings around their neck. The act of tattooing is also considered a form of... Read More


Image A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction. The reproductive organs together constitute the reproductive system. The test is in the male, and the ovary in the female, are called the primary sex organs. All others are called secondary sex organs, divided between the external sex organs the genitals or genitalia, visible at birth in both sexes and the internal sex organs. Mosses, ferns, and some similar plants have gametangia for reproductive organs, which are part of the gametophyte. The flowers of flowering plants produce pollen and... Read More

Obesity and cancer

Image The association between obesity, as defined by a body mass index of 30 or higher, and risk of a variety of types of cancer has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years. Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer (among postmenopausal women), endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, liver cancer and gallbladder cancer. Obesity may also lead to increased cancer-related mortality. About 75-80% of all cancers in the United States are preventable, if risk factors are avoided (also see (Cancer prevention). Obesity appears to be the... Read More

Gynoid fat distribution

Image Gynoid fat refers to the body fat that forms around the hips, breasts and thighs. Gynoid fat in females is used to provide nourishment for offspring, and is often referred to as 'reproductive fat'. This is because it contains long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are important in the development of foetuses. However, it is also regarded as a physically attractive feature and serves additionally as an indication towards a woman's reproductive potential for mates. Gynoid fat is primarily a store of energy to be utilised in the nurturing of offspring, both to provide adequate energy... Read More

Genetics of obesity

Image Like many other medical conditions, obesity is the result of an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. Studies have identified variants in several genes that may contribute to weight gain and body fat distribution; although, only in a few cases are genes the primary cause of obesity. Polymorphisms in various genes controlling appetite and metabolism predispose to obesity under certain dietary conditions. The percentage of obesity that can be attributed to genetics varies widely, depending on the population examined, from 6% to 85%. As of 2006, more than 41 sites on the human genome have been linked to... Read More

Diet food

Image Diet food (or dietetic food) refers to any food or beverage whose recipe is altered to reduce fat, carbohydrates, and/or sugar in order to make it part of a weight loss program or diet. Such foods are usually intended to assist in weight loss or a change in body type, although bodybuilding supplements are designed to aid in gaining weight or muscle. The process of making a diet version of a food usually requires finding an acceptable low-food-energy substitute for some high-food-energy ingredient.[2] This can be as simple as replacing some or all of the food's sugar with... Read More


Image Leptin is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells and enterocytes in the small intestine that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger, which in turn diminishes fat storage in adipocytes. Leptin acts on cell receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its many sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the many cell types beyond hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. Many of these additional functions are yet... Read More

Etiology of Obesity

Image Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. Obesity is most commonly... Read More

Diabetic Diet

Image A diabetic diet is a diet that is used by people with diabetes mellitus or high blood sugar to minimize symptoms and dangerous complications of long term elevations in blood sugar (i.e.: cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, obesity). Among guideline recommendations including the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Diabetes UK, there is no consensus that one specific diet is better than others. This is due to a lack of long term high quality studies on this subject matter. For overweight and obese people with diabetes, the most important aspect of any diet is that it results in... Read More

Diabetes mellitus (DM)

Image Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased appetite. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes and cognitive impairment. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly... Read More


Image Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. Obesity is... Read More

Childhood- Obesity

Image Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being. As methods to determine body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is often based on BMI. Due to the rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects it is being recognized as a serious public health concern. The term overweight rather than obese is often used when discussing childhood obesity, especially in open discussion, as it is less stigmatizing. Body mass index (BMI) is acceptable for determining obesity for children two years of age... Read More

Bariatric- Surgery

Image Bariatric surgery (or weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who are obese. Long term weight loss through Standard of Care procedures (Roux en Y Bypass, Sleeve Gastrectomy, and Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch) is largely achieved by altering gut hormone levels that are responsible for hunger and satiety, leading to a new hormonal weight set point. Bariatric surgery is a hormonal surgery in these procedures, for which the alteration in gut hormones develops as a result of the procedure's restriction and malabsorption. Long-term studies show the procedures cause significant long-term loss... Read More

Anti-obesity medication

Image Anti-obesity medication or weight loss medications are pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight. These medications alter one of the fundamental processes of the human body, weight regulation, by altering either appetite, or absorption of calories. The main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise. In the United States orlistat (Xenical) is currently approved by the FDA for long-term use. It reduces intestinal fat absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. Rimonabant (Acomplia), a second medication, works via a specific blockade of the endocannabinoid system. It has been developed from the knowledge that... Read More

Android Obesity

Image Android fat distribution describes the distribution of human adipose tissue mainly around the trunk and upper body, in areas such as the abdomen, chest, shoulder and nape of the neck. This pattern may lead to an "apple-shaped" body or central obesity, and is more common in males than in females. Thus, the android fat distribution of men is about 48.6%, which is 10.3% higher than that of premenopausal women. In other cases, an ovoid shape forms which does not differentiate between men and women. Generally during early adulthood, females tend to have a more peripheral fat distribution such... Read More

Annular pancreas

Image Annular pancreas is a rare condition in which the second part of the duodenum is surrounded by a ring of pancreatic tissue continuous with the head of the pancreas. This portion of the pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair the flow of food to the rest of the intestines. It is estimated to occur in 1 out of 12,000 to 15,000 newborns. The ambiguity arises from the fact that not all cases are symptomatic. Early signs of abnormality include polyhydramnios (an excess of amniotic fluid), low birth weight, and feeding intolerance immediately after... Read More

Artificial pancreas

Image The artificial pancreas is a technology in development to help people with diabetes, primarily type 1, automatically and continuously control their blood glucose level by providing the substitute endocrine functionality of a healthy pancreas. The endocrine functionality of the pancreas is provided by islet cells which produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. Artificial pancreatic technology mimics the secretion of these hormones into the bloodstream in response to the body's changing blood glucose levels. Maintaining balanced blood sugar levels is crucial to the function of the brain, liver, and kidneys. Therefore, for type 1 patients, it is necessary that... Read More

Patho physiology

Image Pathophysiology a convergence of pathology with physiology is the study of the disordered physiological processes that cause, result from, or are otherwise associated with a disease or injury. Pathology is the medical discipline that describes conditions typically observed during a disease state, whereas physiology is the biological discipline that describes processes or mechanisms operating within an organism. Pathology describes the abnormal or undesired condition, whereas pathophysiology seeks to explain the functional changes that are occurring within an individual due to a disease or pathologic state. In the 1950s, researches on rheumatic fever, a complication of streptococcal... Read More

Agricultural economics

Image Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fiber. Agricultural economics began as a branch of economics that specifically dealt with land usage, it focused on maximizing the crop yield while maintaining a good soil ecosystem. Throughout the 20th century the discipline expanded and the current scope of the discipline is much broader. Agricultural economics today includes a variety of applied areas, having considerable overlap with conventional economics. #Agricultural economists have made substantial contributions to research in economics, econometrics, development economics, and environmental economics.... Read More

Neurological Disorder

Image A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can result in a range of symptoms. Examples of symptoms include paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, confusion, pain and altered levels of consciousness. There are many recognized neurological disorders, some relatively common, but many rare. They may be assessed by neurological examination, and studied and treated within the specialities of neurology and clinical neuropsychology. Interventions for neurological disorders include preventive measures, lifestyle changes, physiotherapy or other therapy, neurorehabilitation, pain management, medication, operations performed... Read More

Spinal cord injury

Image A spinal cord injury — damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal (cauda equina) — often causes permanent changes in strength, sensation and other body functions below the site of the injury.If you've recently experienced a spinal cord injury, it might seem like every aspect of your life has been affected. You might feel the effects of your injury mentally, emotionally and socially.Many scientists are optimistic that advances in research will someday make the repair of spinal cord injuries possible. Research studies are ongoing around the world. In the meantime,... Read More

Cystic fibrosiss

Image Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine. Long-term issues include difficulty breathing and coughing up mucus as a result of frequent lung infections. Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in most males. Different people may have different degrees of symptoms. CF is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. It is caused by the presence of mutations in both copies of the gene for the cystic fibrosis trans membrane conductance... Read More

Pancreas transplantation

Image A pancreas transplant is an organ transplant that involves implanting a healthy pancreas (one that can produce insulin) into a person who usually has diabetes. Because the pancreas is a vital organ, performing functions necessary in the digestion process, the recipient's native pancreas is left in place, and the donated pancreas is attached in a different location. In the event of rejection of the new pancreas, which would quickly cause life-threatening diabetes, there would be a significant chance the recipient would not survive very well for long without the native pancreas, however dysfunctional, still in place. ... Read More

Islet Cell Carcinoma

Image Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors often referred to as "islet cell tumors"or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous system within the pancreas. PanNETs are a type of neuroendocrine tumor, representing about one third of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). Many PanNETs are benign, while some are malignant. Aggressive Pan NET tumors have traditionally been termed "islet cell carcinoma". Pannets are quite distinct from the usual form of pancreatic cancer, the majority of which are adeno carcinomas, which arises in the exocrine pancreas. Only 1 or 2% of clinically significant... Read More

Autoimmune pancreatitis

Image Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an increasingly recognized type of chronic pancreatitis that can be difficult to distinguish from pancreatic carcinoma but which responds to treatment with corticosteroids, particularly prednisone. There are two categories of AIP: Type 1 and Type 2, each with distinct clinical profiles. Type 1 AIP is now regarded as a manifestation of IgG4-related disease, and those affected have tended to be older and to have a high relapse rate. Type 1 is associated with pancreatitis, Sjogren syndrome, Primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with Type 2 AIP do not experience relapse,... Read More

Pancreatic cancers

Image Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass. These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other parts of the body. There are a number of types of pancreatic cancer. The most common, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, accounts for about 90% of cases, and the term "pancreatic cancer" is sometimes used to refer only to that type. These adenocarcinomas start within the part of the pancreas which makes digestive enzymes. Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can... Read More

Chronic Pancreatitis

Image Chronic pancreatitis is a long-standing inflammation of the pancreas that alters the organ's normal structure and functions. It can present as episodes of acute inflammation in a previously injured pancreas, or as chronic damage with persistent pain or absorption. It is a disease process characterized by irreversible damage to the pancreas as distinct from reversible changes in acute pancreatitis. The different treatment options for management of chronic pancreatitis are medical measures, therapeutic endoscopy and surgery. Treatment is directed, when possible, to the underlying cause, and to relieve pain and malabsorption. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus may occur... Read More

Acute pancreatitis

Image Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas. Causes in order of frequency include: 1) a gallstone impacted in the common bile duct beyond the point where the pancreatic duct joins it; 2) heavy alcohol use; 3) systemic disease; 4) trauma; 5) and, in minors, mumps. Acute pancreatitis may be a single event; it may be recurrent; or it may progress to chronic pancreatitis. Mild cases are usually successfully treated with conservative measures: hospitalization, pain control, nothing by mouth, intravenous nutritional support, and intravenous fluid rehydration. Severe cases often require admission to an intensive... Read More


Image The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdomen behind the stomach and functions as a gland. The pancreas has both an endocrine and a digestive exocrine function. As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. As a part of the digestive system, it functions as an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. This juice contains bicarbonate, which neutralizes acid entering the duodenum from the stomach;... Read More

Spinal cord injury.

Image Damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal. A traumatic spinal cord injury may happen because of a sudden blow or cut to the spine. A spinal cord injury often causes permanent loss of strength, sensation and function below the site of the injury. Rehabilitation and assistive devices allow many people with spinal cord injuries to lead productive, independent lives. Treatments include drugs to reduce symptoms and surgery to stabilise the spine Accepting paper regarding field of physiotherapy you can submit your submission here: https://www.scitechnol.com/submission/ You can also Email us: physicaltherapy@scitecjournals.com... Read More

Idiopathic achalasia.

Image Idiopathic achalasia is a primary motor disorder characterized by aperistalsis of the esophagus and abnormal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in response to deglutition. It is a genetic disorder with an estimated annual occurrence of 1/100,000 and a prevalence rate of 1/10,000. The disease can occur at any age, with men and women at a similar rate, but is usually diagnosed between 25 and 60 years old. It is predominantly characterized by dysphagia to solids and liquids, bland regurgitation and chest pain. The diagnosis is based on disease history, radiography (barium esophagogram), and testing of esophageal motility (esophageal... Read More

hydrophobic effect.

Image The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of non-polar substances to accumulate in an aqueous solution and remove water molecules.The term hydrophobic simply means water-fearing, and describes the division of water and non-polar substances, which maximizes the bonding of hydrogen between water molecules and minimizes the area of contact between water and non-polar molecules. The hydrophobic effect in terms of thermodynamics is the free energy change of the water that surrounds a solute. A positive free energy change of the surrounding solvent indicates hydrophobicity, whereas hydrophilicity is implied by a negative free energy change. Comment your views through Email: chemengineerapp@scitecjournals.com... Read More

Hazardous wastes are ubiquitous

Image Hazardous wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. A hazardous waste is a special type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other by-products of our everyday lives. Depending on the physical state of the waste, treatment and solidification processes might be required. Generally pose a lower threat relative to other hazardous wastes are ubiquitous and produced in very large quantities by a large number of generators. Some of the most common "universal wastes" are: fluorescent light bulbs, some specialty batteries (e.g. lithium or lead containing batteries), cathode... Read More

Energy efficiency and renewable energy

Image There are many motivations to improve energy efficiency. Reducing energy use reduces energy costs and may result in a financial cost saving to consumers if the energy savings offset any additional costs of implementing an energy-efficient technology. Reducing energy use is also seen as a solution to the problem of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. According to the International Energy Agency, improved energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes and transportation could reduce the world's energy needs in 2050 by one third, and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases. Another important solution is to remove government-led energy subsidies that promote high... Read More

Effluent refers to liquid discharge

Image Effluent is an out flowing of water or gas to a natural body of water, from a structure such as a wastewater treatment plant, sewer pipe, or industrial outfall. Effluent in the artificial sense is in general considered to be water pollution, such as the outflow from a sewage treatment facility or the wastewater discharge from industrial facilities. An effluent sump pump, for instance, pumps waste from toilets installed below a main sewage line. In the context of waste water treatment plants, effluent that has been treated is sometimes called secondary effluent, or treated effluent. This cleaner effluent is then... Read More

Deforestation causes extinction

Image The primary cause of deforestation is agriculture. Trees are cut down for use as building material or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The vast majority of agricultural activity resulting in deforestation is subsidized by government tax revenue. Disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management, and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that lead to large-scale deforestation. Deforestation in many countries—both naturally occurring and human-induced—is an ongoing issue. Between 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometres (890,000 sq mi) of forests around... Read More

Cryptosporidium is highly resistant to chlorine disinfection

Image Cryptosporidium causes cryptosporidiosis, an infection that may present as a diarrhoeal with or without a persistent cough in immune competent hosts. Other apicomplexan pathogens include the malaria parasite Plasmodium and the toxoplasmosis parasite Toxoplasma. Unlike Plasmodium, which transmits via a mosquito vector, Cryptosporidium does not use an insect vector, and is capable of completing its lifecycle within a single host, resulting in cyst stages that are excreted in feces or through inhalation of coughed on fomites and are capable of transmission to a new host Many treatment plants that take raw water from rivers, lakes, and reservoirs for public drinking... Read More

Carbon monoxide is naturally produced

Image Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to animals that use hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier (both invertebrate and vertebrate) when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions. In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short-lived, having a role in the formation of ground-level ozone. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of... Read More

Blooms can injure animals or the ecology

Image Algal blooms are the result of a nutrient, like nitrogen or phosphorus from fertilizer runoff, entering the aquatic system and causing excessive growth of algae. An algal bloom affects the whole ecosystem. Consequences range from the benign feeding of higher trophic levels, to more harmful effects like blocking sunlight from reaching other organisms, causing a depletion of oxygen levels in the water, and, depending on the organism, secreting toxins into the water. The process of the oversupply of nutrients leading to algae growth and oxygen depletion is called eutrophication. Blooms that can injure animals or the ecology are called "harmful algal blooms" (HAB),... Read More

Biodegradable waste can be used for composting

Image Biodegradable waste can be found in municipal solid waste (sometimes called biodegradable municipal waste, or as green waste, food waste, paper waste and biodegradable plastics. Other biodegradable wastes include human waste, manure, sewage, sewage sludge and slaughterhouse waste. In the absence of oxygen, much of this waste will decay to methane by anaerobic digestion. In many parts of the developed world, biodegradable waste is separated from the rest of the waste stream, either by separate curb-side collection or by waste sorting after collection. At the point of collection such waste is often referred to as green waste. Removing such waste from the rest of the waste stream substantially reduces waste volumes for disposal and also allows biodegradable waste to be composted. Biodegradable... Read More

NPH insulin

Image NPH insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is an intermediate–acting insulin given to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It is used by injection under the skin once to twice a day. Onset of effects is typically in 90 minutes and they last for 24 hours.Versions are available that come premixed with a short–acting insulin, such as regular insulin. The common side effect is low blood sugar.Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions. Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby. NPH insulin is made by mixing regular insulin and protamine in exact proportions with zinc and phenol such that a neutral-pH is maintained and crystals form.There are human... Read More


Image Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease. Immunization is a proven tool for controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases and is estimated to avert between 2 and 3 million deaths each year. It is one of the most cost-effective health investments, with proven strategies that make it accessible to even the most hard-to-reach and vulnerable populations. It has clearly defined target groups; it can be delivered effectively through... Read More

Rehabilitation: A set of interventions needed

Image Rehabilitation is a set of interventions needed when a person is experiencing or is likely to experience limitations in everyday functioning due to ageing or a health condition, including chronic diseases or disorders, injuries or traumas. Examples of limitations in functioning are difficulties in thinking, seeing, hearing, communicating, moving around, having relationships or keeping a job. Rehabilitation is an essential component of universal health coverage along with promotion, prevention, treatment and palliation. There is an increasing need for rehabilitation worldwide associated with changing health and... Read More


Image A toxidrome  is a syndrome caused by a dangerous level of toxins in the body. The term was coined in 1970 by Mofenson and Greensher. It is often the consequence of a drug overdose. Common symptoms include dizziness, disorientation, nausea, vomiting, and oscillopsia. A toxidrome may indicate a medical emergency requiring treatment at a poison control center. Aside from poisoning, a systemic infection may also lead to a toxidrome. "Classic" toxidromes include anticholinergic, Cholinergic, Hallucinogenic, Sedative/hypnotic, but they are often variable or obscured by the co-ingestion of multiple drugs. Anticholinergic The symptoms of an anticholinergic toxidrome include blurred vision, coma, decreased bowel sounds, delirium, dry skin, fever, flushing, hallucinations, ileus, memory loss, mydriasis (dilated pupils), myoclonus, psychosis, seizures, and urinary retention. Complications include hypertension, hyperthermia, and tachycardia. Substances that may cause this toxidrome include antihistamines, antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiparkinsonian drugs, atropine, benztropine, datura, and scopolamine. Cholinergic The symptoms of a cholinergic toxidrome include bronchorrhea, confusion, defecation, diaphoresis, diarrhea, emesis, lacrimation, miosis, muscle fasciculations, salivation, seizures, urination,... Read More

MEDIATORS BETWEEN YOGA PRACTICE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING Mindfulness, Body Awareness and Satisfaction with Body Image**

Image Regular yoga practice was connected to higher levels of psychological well-being in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. However, the psychological mechanisms of this connection are still unexplained. In the present cross-sectional questionnaire study, hypothesised mediating effects of body awareness, satisfaction with body image, and mindfulness were investigated. 203 healthy adults (183 females, mean age: 36.8 ± 10.03 years) practicing yoga at an advanced level were involved in the study. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing body awareness (BAQ), dissatisfaction with body image (BIQ), mindfulness (MAAS) and well-being (WHO-5). Body awareness, body image dissatisfaction and mindfulness showed significant correlations with the weekly frequency... Read More

Yoga Practice May Buffer the Deleterious Effects of Abuse on Women's Self-Concept and Dysfunctional Coping

Image Women who experienced abuse as children or adults can suffer from symptoms such as dissociations, physiological regulation difficulties, and mood disturbances that might not respond to traditional interventions. Given the benefits of yoga, we hypothesized that yoga practice would ameliorate the negative impact of abuse on psychological functioning. Our findings suggest that frequent yoga practice might ameliorate the negative impact of abuse history on self-concept and coping skills. In addition, our findings suggest that women who incorporate yoga into other areas of life could get the greatest psychological benefits. Given the preliminary nature of this study, further research into the... Read More

Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions

Image Electronic circuits provide us with the ability to control the transport and storage of electrons. However, the performance of electronic circuits is now becoming rather limited when digital information needs to be sent from one point to another. Photonics offers an effective solution to this problem by implementing optical communication systems based on optical fibers and photonic circuits. Unfortunately, the micrometer-scale bulky components of photonics have limited the integration of these components into electronic chips, which are now measured in nanometers. Surface plasmon–based circuits, which merge electronics and photonics at the nanoscale, may offer a solution to this size-compatibility problem.... Read More

Foldable Printed Circuit Boards on Paper Substrates

Image This paper describes several low-cost methods for fabricating flexible electronic circuits on paper. The circuits comprise i) metallic wires (e.g., tin or zinc) that are deposited on the substrate by evaporation, sputtering, or airbrushing, and ii) discrete surface-mountable electronic components that are fastened with conductive adhesive directly to the wires. These electronic circuits—like conventional printed circuit boards—can be produced with electronic components that connect on both sides of the substrate. Unlike printed circuit boards made from fiberglass, ceramics, or polyimides, however, paper can be folded and creased (repeatedly), shaped to form threedimensional structures, trimmed using scissors, used to wick fluids... Read More

Primary Lymphoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Image Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma represents approximately 1% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Gastric involvement is more common than small or large intestine and carries a better progrosis. Abdominal pain and weight loss may be the only manifestations and may be present for months or years before the diagnosis is made. Perforation and obstruction occur infrequently. Multiple tumors constitute 8% ofcases. Although barium studies and endoscopy reveal the lesion in a high percentage of cases, exploratory celiotomy is not infrequently required for diagnosis. Only one-third of lymphomas are confined to the bowel at laparotomy. Histologically one-third are reticulum cell sarcomas and the remainder... Read More

Gastrointestinal Tract Duplications : Clinical, Pathologic , Etiologic, and Radiologic Considerations

Image Gastrointestinal tract duplications are uncommon congenital abnormalities. By definition, they are located in or adjacent to the wall of part of the gastrointestinal tract, have smooth muscle in their walls, and are lined by alimentary tract mucosa. The lining mucosa is not necessarily that of the adjacent segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The only clinically important ectopic tissues are gastric mucosa and pancreatic tissue. Although ectopic gastric mucosa is found in duplications at all levels of the gastrointestinal tract, it is most prevalent (43%) in esophageal duplications. Peptic ulcer within this ectopic tissue can account for unusual, often misleading symptoms. Ectopic pancreatic tissue is most... Read More

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Perspective from China

Image In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) infection occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread across China and beyond. On February 12, 2020, WHO officially named the disease caused by the novel coronavirus as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since most COVID-19 infected patients were diagnosed with pneumonia and characteristic CT imaging patterns, radiological examinations have become vital in early diagnosis and assessment of disease course. To date, CT findings have been recommended as major evidence for clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 in Hubei, China. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical symptoms... Read More

Chest CT Findings in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Relationship to Duration of Infection

Image In this retrospective study, chest CT scans from 121 symptomatic patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from four centers in China from January 18, 2020, to February 2, 2020, were reviewed for common CT findings in relationship to the time between symptom onset and the initial CT scan (ie, early, 0–2 days [36 patients]; intermediate, 3–5 days [33 patients]; late, 6–12 days [25 patients]). The hallmarks of COVID-19 infection on images were bilateral and peripheral ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities. Notably, 20 of the 36 patients (56%) imaged in the early phase had a normal CT scan. With a... Read More

Carbohydrate molecules.

Image Monosaccharides (mono- = “one”; sacchar- = “sweet”) are simple sugars . In monosaccharides, the number of carbons usually ranges from three to seven. If the sugar has an aldehyde group (the functional group with the structure R-CHO), it is known as an aldose, and if it has a ketone group (the functional group with the structure RC(=O)R’), it is known as a ketose. Depending on the number of carbons in the sugar, they also may be known as trioses (three carbons), pentoses (five carbons), and or hexoses (six carbons). Monosaccharides can exist as a linear chain or as ring-shaped molecules;... Read More

Disease modification in osteoarthritis; pathways to drug approval

Image Disease modification in osteoarthritis; pathways to drug approval To summarize proceedings of a workshop convened to discuss advances in disease modifying osteoarthritis (OA) drugs and regulatory challenges in bringing these drugs to market. Attendees presented data documenting the prevalence, cost and disability burden of OA; recent documentation of disease modification without concomitant clinical benefit in trials of disease modifying drugs; regulatory considerations pertinent to disease modifying therapy; and methodologic approaches to addressing these regulatory considerations. The research, pharmaceutical and regulatory communities must continue to collaborate on defining pathways for approval of disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs that document effects on clinical... Read More

Body Mass Index and predisposition of patients to knee osteoarthritis

Image Body Mass Index and predisposition of patients to knee osteoarthritis Introduction Obesity is increasingly a prevalent comorbid with potentially substantial adverse effects on pre and postoperative outcomes on osteoarthritis patients. The ablative effect on the joint especially on the weight sustaining joints is the major consequence of osteoarthritis that causes pain and the obese are most susceptible. Methodology A retrospective cohort study, using a non-probability convenience sampling method. A self-administered twelve item questionnaire on the perception of knee osteoarthritis was used to determine the relationship of obesity with the development of knee osteoarthritis among patients visiting the surgery outpatient clinic... Read More

The Singapore Model of Managing Healthcare Cost

Image The Singapore healthcare system can be considered a successful system in relation to its efficiency and provision of world class services to Singaporean residents. One of the major factors that have contributed to the success of the Singapore Healthcare system has been how healthcare cost is managed. This paper seeks to evaluate how Singapore manages its healthcare cost. We compare how health cost is managed in Singapore, with that of the United States and Germany. The study found out that Singapore manages its healthcare cost through multiple protection schemes that are supplemented with private ... Read More

Irradiation test of fiber optics for H-alpha diagnostics in ITER

Image Irradiation test of fiber optics for H-alpha diagnostics in ITER The reliability of the optical diagnostics in ITER critically depends on a radiation resistance of the fiber optics for a transmission of the plasma light to remote detectors. The design of the H-alpha diagnostics includes the fiber bundles 60 m long, the first 10 m of that run through the gamma-neutron fields. This part of the bundle will accumulate the absorbed dose of no more than 10 kGy (for silica) and the total neutron fluence of 1014 n/cm2 in the ITER lifetime. The modern types of the radiation resistant silica-based fibers can... Read More


Image A simple, robust and selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Ritonavir in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was based on the scanning of methanolic solution of the drug and methanolic solution of formulation. The method showed high sensitivity with linearity range from 10 to 20 μg/mL. The lower limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 1.1 μg/mL and the limit of quantization (LOQ) was determined as the lowest concentration was found to be 3.3 μg/mL. The variables that affected the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. The proposed method was applied successfully for the... Read More

Optical properties of graphene oxide-coated tellurite glass for potential fiber optics

Image Optical properties of graphene oxide-coated tellurite glass for potential fiber optics In this work, we synthesize graphene oxide (GO)-coated tellurite glass for the improved optical performance of fiber optics. A series of tellurite glass system with composition of {[(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]0.7 (ZnO) 0.3}1-y (Er2O3) y where y (mol%) = 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04and 0.05 mol% was successfully fabricated and coated with GO by using melt-quenching and spray coating methods. The structural properties were characterized by using XRD analysis and FESEM. The XRD patterns indicated that the tellurite glass were amorphous. The FTIR transmissions images revealed the surface morphology of GO on the glass surface. The optical band gap energy was found... Read More

Using Eye-Tracking as Support for the TEACCH Program and Two Teenagers with Autism-Spectrum Disorders

Image Mobile eye-tracking can be a powerful tool to help in designing strategies to improve learning in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. The two teenagers studied in our project, both with autism disorders, use less fixation points to look at these scenes and are slower than peers with normal development. After one year of individualized treatment, the teenagers’ competencies in eye contact with target points were improved. These preliminary results show that the intervention should take place in ecological conditions and the evaluation using Mobil eye-tracker, something which bypasses language deficits, could be integrated into clinical routines in order to increase... Read More

Lycium ruthenicum studies: Molecular biology, Phytochemistry and pharmacology

Image Lycium ruthenicum studies: Molecular biology, Phytochemistry and pharmacology Lycium ruthenicum has been used as ethnic medicine and nutraceutical food. Existing studies of L. ruthenicum can be classifies into three areas: (1) those in which molecular biology methods were used to study its origin, genetic variation and relationships with other species; (2) those in which phytochemical methods were used to extract, isolate, and identify compounds; and (3) those in which pharmacological methods were used to study active compounds. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of L. ruthenicum studies. This review will provide a useful bibliography for further investigations and applications of L. ruthenicum in... Read More

Potential False Negatives in the Molecular Diagnostics of COVID-19 Infection

Image Potential False Negatives in the Molecular Diagnostics of COVID-19 Infection The current situation in the molecular diagnostics field applied to the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2) virus detection has forced various laboratories to quickly offer a solution for the identification of the infected people in this pandemic scenario recently declared by the World Health Organization. In the epidemiological emergency, the rapid commercialization of CE-IVD kits pushed numerous hospitals to adopt these methods without complete internal validations that would allow evaluating the actual analytical methods limits. Moreover, the same WHO, given the global escalation of the epidemic,... Read More

Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level.Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level.

Image Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated. Researchers in molecular biology use specific techniques native to molecular biology, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ideas from genetics and biochemistry. There is not a hard-line between these disciplines as there once was. Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material. The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA... Read More

Biocatalysis and Biotransformation.

Image Enzymatic reactions and biotransformations catalyzed by fungal enzymes and used in industry, agriculture, food technology, and medicine have increased in importance tremendously in recent years. Many efforts have been made to detect new sources of enzymes and to adapt these biological catalysts, for example, by methods of gene technology and protein engineering, to new applications for human or commercial benefit. This will be the subject of approximately half of this chapter. On the other hand, enzymatic activities of fungi can damage various products of human endeavor. Fungi may use these products for their growth and development, degrading, destroying, or inactivating... Read More

The Significance of Newborn Heel Blood Test: A Case Report with Congenital Hypothyroidism and Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia

Image Diseases such as phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis and biotinase deficiency can be detected with the Heel Blood Test, which is a simple and inexpensive method with a few drops of blood in the next 5-10 days after birth. In the Heel Blood Test, we presented patients who were diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism and Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia due to TSH (Thyrotrophin-Stimulating Hormone) elevation, who were followed-up after the examination and imaging procedures and wanted to emphasize the importance of screening programs in neonatal period. Research Journal of Clinical Pediatrics is an Open Access, online Journal dedicated to publish most... Read More

Metabolic engineering is a process for modulating the metabolism of the organisms.

Image Living organisms have numerous biochemical reactions operating in them. These reactions allow the organisms to survive by processes such as generation of energy, production of fundamental building blocks required for structural organization and synthesis of biomolecules having specialized functions. Some of the chemicals generated during this process (called metabolism), are useful to mankind for various applications.  These so-called valueadded chemicals include various bioactive secondary metabolites such as an anti-malarial drug (artemesinin), chemicals required as the raw material for the synthesis of other molecules such as lactic acid, chemicals imparting flavor to food material such as terpenes, biofuels and associated chemicals... Read More

Metabolic engineering is a Metabolic engineering is a process for modulating the metabolism of the organisms.engineering is a process for modulating the metabolism of the organisms.ss for modulating the metabolism of the organisms.

Image Living organisms have numerous biochemical reactions operating in them. These reactions allow the organisms to survive by processes such as generation of energy, production of fundamental building blocks required for structural organization and synthesis of biomolecules having specialized functions. Some of the chemicals generated during this process (called metabolism), are useful to mankind for various applications.  These so-called valueadded chemicals include various bioactive secondary metabolites such as an anti-malarial drug (artemesinin), chemicals required as the raw material for the synthesis of other molecules such as lactic acid, chemicals imparting flavor to food material such as terpenes, biofuels and associated chemicals... Read More

The Abuse of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MDPBP): A Case Report

Image The abuse of new designer drugs available on the black market is increasing worldwide. Their use has, in some cases, led to fatal overdoses in addition to other adverse social and health effects, yet revealing the cause of the potential intoxication has so far proven difficult on account of the absence of appropriate analytical data for the drug in question as well as the lack of specific knowledge of how it is metabolized. The case outlined here concerns abuse of an unspecified drug nicknamed “Funky”. Simultaneous general GC-MS screening and ultra-high resolution accurate mass liquid chromatography-mass spektrometry toxicological analysis of... Read More

Disposition and Enterohepatic Circulation of Intravenously Administered 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Serum and Urine in Healthy Human Subjects

Image Verification of abstinence from Cannabis use is the second most frequently encountered analytical task beside alcohol misuse in driving cases, conditions of probation and patients during maintenance treatment. In both blood and urine, detection of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC-COOH) is most appropriate considering its long half-life. In addition, THC-COOH has been hypothesized to be a marker of the extent of Cannabis use. Nevertheless, there is only limited knowledge on the direct disposition of THC-COOH in humans which is formed from Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by oxidative breakdown. And such relevant topic falls under the scope of Journal of Forensic Toxicology & Pharmacology.... Read More

Bacillus Calmette-Gu�rin (BCG) Vaccine-Induced Disease in Healthy Infants: Identification of BCG Gene from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

Image Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccineinduced systemic complication is rare but localized skin lesion develops in the site of inoculation in healthy infants. Methods: In this report, we described three cases of BCG vaccineinduced skin lesions in healthy immunocompetent infants and a method of identification of BCG gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) form fresh frozen of formalin-fixed and paraffinembedded tissue samples. Results: These cases had a history of BCG vaccination but no family history of tuberculosis and no contact with patients of tuberculosis. Two cases developed cutaneous granuloma in the axilla of ipsilateral side of BCG inoculation. Another case showed granulomatous... Read More

Role of Oxidative Stress in Male Fertility and Idiopathic Infertility: Causes and Treatment

Image Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The exact mechanism for unexplained male infertility and its correlation to oxidative stress incidence and/ or the inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract is still controversially unclear till know. Previous studies have shown the presence of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a key player in the inflammation process, in the semen of infertile men. However, the mechanism of their effect on human sperm functions is... Read More

High Intensity Group Gait Training: Is it Intense Enough?

Image Research indicates that high intensity gait training promotes walking recovery and neuroplasticity following neurological injury. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing intensive gait training using a group model. Methods: 50 individuals completing outpatient therapy following neurological injury were recruited. All participants had to be able to ambulate for at least 10 min continuously (Goal of 30 min total) without physical assistance from a therapist. These participants were placed in groups of 2-4 with one therapist, and a goal to ambulate at 60-80% maximum heart rate. Heart Rates (HR) and RPEs (Rate of... Read More

The Challenge of Managing the Elderly Patient

Image We assist at a profound demographic change, which is the rapid aging of the society. Although some people reach a very old age completely free of physical ailments, most seniors are exposed to increasing frailty, disability and poor quality of life. More often than not, they have multiple concomitant diseases, which are more and more difficult to manage by the general practitioner alone. It is extremely challenging to establish a good medical approach in elderly patients, and in order to get a complete evidence of all medical problems and to prevent or reduce complains from the patients or their families,... Read More

Examining Some International Trends in Long-Term Care Services Policy for the Elderly

Image Globally, national policies regarding long-term care are a mixture of “embedded” policies and trans-national trends. Health and related long-term care policies are “embedded” in situations that are unique to specific countries. The specific contexts of such policies include many aspects such as demographic characteristics, socio-cultural factors, governmental organization and political circumstances. These factors create existential limits to choices to some extent that are termed “path dependency” or “sunken costs.” Such path dependency shapes the trajectory of emerging health and related long-term care policies. Nevertheless, in many respects, long-term care policies in industrial/post industrial countries face similar problems arising from the... Read More

Genetics and Protein Engineering in plant research.

Image Protein engineering and directed evolution are powerful technologies for probing protein sequence-function relationships. These methods have been used to engineer both plant-derived proteins and exogenous proteins heterologously expressed in plants. In this review, we aim to further increase the interdisciplinary crossover between the disciplines of protein engineering and plant biology by first introducing protein engineering in some detail. This introduction is key to understanding current limitations to protein engineering when applied to plants. Subsequently, we provide an overview of the recent methodological progress in, and novel applications of, protein engineering and directed evolution in plant research. Protein engineering is the... Read More

Case Reflection on Cancer of Colon with Metabolic Encephalopathy

Image I have been serving Nursing department as a Clinical Instructor in oncology department. My duties and responsibilities are to taking care of patients suffering with cancer, to prepare and provide chemotherapeutic drugs to patients, to supervise and educate the nursing students in oncological area to prepare competitive nurses, provide an adequate sound scientific foundation to students by explaining the various disease conditions related to oncology, treatments available and their complications. Journal of Nursing & Patient Care (JNPC) is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal that aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and... Read More

Acardia in twins or triplets.

Image Acardia is a rare developmental malformation that occurs only in twins or triplets. It is also referred to as acardiac acephalus, acardiac twinning, or twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) syndrome or sequence. The disorder is very rare and occurs in 1 in 34,600 births or 1 in 100 monozygotic twins and 1 in 30 monozygotic triplets and 1 in quintuplets. For all cases reported are monozygous twins. There are, however, records of dichorionic monozygotic twin gestations with a TRAP number. Arcadia needs the involvement of arterial – arterial anastomosis in the placenta, with a retrograde perfusion of improperly oxygenated blood... Read More

Effect of Child Thalassemia on the Mental Health of their Caregivers

Image In case group of caregivers, majority were mothers. 75% had consanguineous marriages. 85% caregivers were employed and 30% were suffering from a disease. 16.7% reported change in their disease. 61.7% of caregivers got family support likewise 63.3% of caregivers had social support.15% of caregivers had personal issues. On application of PHQ-9 on caregivers, majority laid in the category of mild depression. On applying GAD-7 score,36.7% had mild anxiety. In control group of caregivers most of those were their mothers too. 5% were employed and 35% had disease(s). 15% of those having any disease reported change in their health. 93.3% of... Read More

Steroid Injections.

Image The most commonly used treatments are steroid injection and physiotherapy. Steroid injection has strong anti-inflammation effect and has long been used for ACS, but invasion to the body and complications such as pain, vasovagal reaction, and serum glucose level changes may prevent patients from accepting this method. It's important not to overdo it for the first two weeks after a steroid injection. There is a small risk that if you exercise a joint too much immediately after a steroid injection you could damage the tendon. Tendons are strong cords that attach muscles to bones. Accepting paper regarding field of physiotherapy... Read More


Image Hydrazones are a family of organic compounds with a composition of R 1R 2C = NNH2. We are linked to ketones and aldehydes by substituting oxygen for the NNH2 functional group. They are normally formed by the action of hydrazine on ketones or aldehydes. The production of aromatic hydrazone derivatives is used to quantify quantities of low molecular weight aldehydes and ketones, e.g. in gas streams. For example, dinitrophenylhydrazine coated on silica sorbent is the basis of an adsorption cartridge. Hydrazones are then elucidated and analyzed by HPLC using a UV detector. Comment your views through Email: chemengineerapp@scitecjournals.com We are... Read More

Biopharmaceuticals from microorganisms: from production to purification.

Image Biopharmaceuticals are mostly therapeutic recombinant proteins obtained by biotechnological processes. They are derived from biological sources such as organs and tissues, microorganisms, animal fluids, or genetically modified cells and organisms. Although several different expression systems may be employed including mammalian cell lines, insects, and plants, new technological advancements are continuously being made to improve microorganism production of biopharmaceuticals. This investment is justified by the well-characterized genomes, versatility of ... Read More

Immunogenic tumor cells

Image   Tumor immunology refers to the relationship between immune function and tumor cells, which is crucial for our understanding of the mechanisms of both tumor rejection and tumor progression. The immunological mechanisms involved in cancer growth are highly complex, including tissue-resident and blood-derived cells. The human immune system mounts natural endogenous response to highly immunogenic tumor cells through a series of steps, including the presenting of tumor antigens to T cells via antigen-presenting cells (APCs), priming and activation of T cells in the lymph nodes, trafficking and infiltration of T cells into tumor beds, recognition of cancer cells by T... Read More

Could next-gen biodegradable polymers help solve the plastic problems?

Image Biodegradable plastics might seem an obvious solution to the plastic waste problem, but their current form lags behind fossil-based polymers in required properties. Sometimes they don’t even biodegrade that well. New research is trying to find a solution. “Polyethylene terephthalate, or PET, which plastic water bottles are made of, is a remarkable polymer,” says Professor Alex Conradie, who leads the Sustainable Process Technologies research group at the University of Nottingham. “It has very useful properties and given decades of process optimisation invested into PET manufacturing, it’s also very cost effective. It is a tall order to match the properties of... Read More

Cure for tuberculosis

Image Tuberculin, also known as purified protein derivative, is a combination of proteins that are used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This use is referred to as the tuberculin skin test and is recommended only for those at high risk. Injection is done into the skin. After 48 to 72 hours if there is more than a five to ten millimeter area of swelling the test is considered positive Common side effects include redness, itchiness, and pain at the site of injection. Allergic reactions may occasionally occur. The test may be falsely positive in those who have been previously vaccinated with... Read More


Image Definition: Maxillofacial trauma refers to any injury to the face or jaw caused by physical force, the presence of, animal or human bites , Facial trauma, also called maxillofacial trauma, is any physical trauma to the face. Facial trauma can involve soft tissue injuries such as burns, lacerations and bruises, or fractures of the facial bones such as nasal fractures and fractures of the jaw, as well as trauma such as eye injuries. Description: Maxillofacial trauma includes injuries to any of the bony or fleshy structures of the face. Any part of the face may be affected. Teeth may be knocked out or loosened. The eyes and their muscles, nerves, and blood vessels... Read More

How enzymes can help create a sustainable future, faster.

Image How enzymes can help create a sustainable future, faster. Influenced by classic sci-fi iconography and futuristic 1990s music videos, many of us can often have grand technological ideas about what the future may look like. From jet packs to hover cars and self-tying trainers, these imagined worlds frequently centre on the fantastic. But there’s one fantastic innovation that rarely gets a look-in: the evolution of enzyme technologies. Granted, these pernickety proteins are hardly the stuff of fantasy utopias (no one ever pined for an episode of The Jetsons where the family expressed thermo-stable restriction endonucleases in recombinant Escherichia coli cells). And it’s not as... Read More

Transplant Immunology

Image Transplantation is the process of moving cells, tissues, or organs, from one site to another, either within the same person or between a donor and a recipient. If an organ system fails, or becomes damaged as a consequence of disease or injury, it can be replaced with a healthy organ or tissue from a donor. Organ transplantation is a major operation and is only offered when all other treatment options have failed. Consequently, it is often a life-saving intervention. In 2015/16, 4,601 patient lives were saved or improved in the UK by an organ transplant.i Kidney transplants are the most... Read More


Image A Thymocyte is an immune cell present in the thymus, before it undergoes transformation into a T cell. Thymocytes are produced as stem cells in the bone marrow and reach the thymus via the blood. Thymopoiesis describes the process which turns thymocytes into mature T cells according to either negative or positive selection. This selection process is vitally important in shaping the population of thymocytes into a peripheral pool of T cells that are able to respond to foreign pathogens but remain tolerant towards the body's own antigens. Positive selection selects cells which are able to bind MHC class I... Read More

T cells originate from haematopoietic stem cells

Image T cells (also called T lymphocytes) are one of the main components of the adaptive immune system. They are vital in hosting an immune response against pathogens.T cells play a major role in defence against intracellular pathogens such as viruses, protozoa and intracellular bacteria, and in immunity to extracellular pathogens by providing help for the antibody response.This article shall discuss the production of T cells, the different types present in the immune system and relevant clinical conditions. Production of T Cells T cells originate from haematopoietic stem cells which are produced in the bone marrow. These stem cells then split... Read More


Image The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their respective interventions. A control group (n = 30) was similarly studied to assess the test – retest effect. At the final assessment the yoga group showed a significant increase of 43% in spatial memory scores (Multivariate analysis, Tukey test), while the fine arts and control groups showed no... Read More

Is the practice of yoga or meditation associated with a healthy lifestyle? Results of a national cross-sectional survey of 28695 Australian Women

Image To examine the relationship between yoga/meditation practice and health behavior in Australian women. Women aged 19-25 years, 31-36 years, and 62-67 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) were surveyed regarding smoking, alcohol or drug use, physical activity and dietary behavior; and whether they practiced yoga/meditation on a regular basis. Associations of health behaviors with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using multiple logistic regression modelling. 11344, 8200, and 9151  women aged 19-25 years, 31-36 years, and 62-67 years, respectively, were included of which 29.0%, 21.7%, and 20.7%, respectively, practiced yoga/meditation. Women practicing yoga/meditation were significantly  more likely... Read More

Strand displacement amplification-an isothermal, in vitro DNA amplification technique

Image Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) is an isothermal, in vitro nucleic acid amplification technique based upon the ability of Hincil to nick the unmodified strand of a hemiphosphorothioate form of its recognition site, and the ability of exonuclease deficient klenow (exo- klenow) to extend the 3'-end at the nick and displace the downstream DNA strand. Exponential amplification results from coupling sense and antisense reactions in which strands displaced from a sense reaction serve as target for an antisense reaction and vice versa. In the original design (G. T. Walker, M. C. Little, J. G. Nadeau and D. D. Shank (1992) Proc.... Read More

Protecting the natural environment

Image Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by individuals, organizations and governments. Its objectives are to conserve natural resources and the existing natural environment and, where possible, to repair damage and reverse trends. Due to the pressures of overconsumption, population growth and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Division of the biosphere is the main government body that oversees protection. It does this through the formulation of policy, coordinating and monitoring environmental issues, environmental planning and policy-oriented environmental research. The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) is an institution... Read More

Stem Cell Culture Basics: Media, Cell Lines and Culture Reagents

Image Stem Cell Culture Basics: Media, Cell Lines and Culture Reagents. Stem cells have the unique ability to self-renew or to differentiate into various cell types in response to appropriate signals. These properties provide stem cells with unique capabilities for tissue repair, replacement, and regeneration. Accordingly, human stem cells are of special interest in medical research. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into more cell types than adult stem cells. Differentiation is triggered by various factors in vivo, some of which can be replicated in in vitro stem cell cultures. The nature of stem cells necessitates the use of... Read More

Traumatic Brain Injury

Image Journal of Trauma and Rehabilitation is a peer reviewed journal that focuses on the advancements in the research of Traumatic sciences and its medical rehabilitation. This Journal considers almost all aspects of research related to trauma sciences, psychiatry and its rehabilitation methods from all countries. Trauma can be defined as a deep stress and disturbance in humans caused by physical injury or by any mental disorder. To overcome Traumatic stress in patients Rehabilitation must be done. Rehabilitation plays a major role in patients suffering with Trauma. This Journal focuses on how these traumatic injuries can affect a person both physically and... Read More


Image We are happy to introduce you our journal which is a peer reviewed academic journal (ISSN NO: 2329-9541) which aims to publish the articles that makes a significant contribution in advancing knowledge for immunological application in the treatment of various infectious diseases. Our Journal includes all major themes pertaining to Immunity, Immunization techniques, Vaccination, Epidemology and treatment of infectious diseases. What is septicemia? Septicemia is a serious bloodstream infection. It’s also known as blood poisoning. Septicemia occurs when a bacterial infection elsewhere in the body, such as the lungs or skin, enters the bloodstream. This is dangerous because the bacteria and their toxins... Read More

Comprehensive human genome amplification using multiple displacement amplification

Image Fundamental to most genetic analysis is availability of genomic DNA of adequate quality and quantity. Because DNA yield from human samples is frequently limiting, much effort has been invested in developing methods for whole genome amplification (WGA) by random or degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR. However,existingWGAmethodslikedegenerateoligonucleotideprimed PCR suffer from incomplete coverage and inadequate average DNA size. We describe a method, termed multiple displacement amplification (MDA), which provides a highly uniform representationacrossthegenome.Amplificationbiasamongeight chromosomal loci was less than 3-fold in contrast to 4–6 orders of magnitude for PCR-based WGA methods. Average product length was>10kb.MDAisanisothermal,strand-displacingamplification yielding about 20–30  g product from as few as... Read More

Drugs and Brain

Image The human brain is the most complex organ in the body. This three-pound mass of gray and white matter sits at the center of all human activity. The brain is often likened to an incredibly complex and intricate computer. Instead of electrical circuits on the silicon chips that control our electronic devices, the brain consists of billions of cells, called neurons, which are organized into circuits and networks. How do drugs work in the brain? Drugs interfere with the way neurons send, receive, and process signals via neurotransmitters. Some drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, can activate neurons because their chemical structure... Read More

Phanerozoic starts with the sudden appearance of fossilized evidence

Image The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian Period when animals first developed hard shells preserved in the fossil record. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the Precambrian, is now divided into the Hadean, Archaean and Proterozoic eons. The time span of the Phanerozoic starts with the sudden appearance of fossilized evidence of a number of animal phyla; the evolution of those phyla into diverse forms; the emergence and development of complex plants; the evolution of fish; the emergence of insects and tetrapods; and the development of modern fauna. Plant life on land appeared in the early Phanerozoic eon. During... Read More

Antimatter and Physics

Image Journal of Physics Research and Application is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scholarly journal aims to publish reliable source of scientific information on Physics Research and applied fields. The Journal aims to provide platform for the researchers, expertise in physics sciences disciplines, for disseminating experimental and theoretical reports reporting the progress of Physics Research and its advancing significant interdisciplinary applications.  In modern physics, antimatter is defined as matter which is composed of the antiparticles (or "partners") of the corresponding particles of 'ordinary' matter (koinomatter). Minuscule numbers of antiparticles are generated daily at particle accelerators – total production has been... Read More

Marine invertebrates achieve peak growth

Image Studying the association between Earth climate and extinctions over the past 520 million years, scientists from the University of York write, "The global temperatures predicted for the coming centuries may trigger a new ‘mass extinction event’, where over 50 percent of animal and plant species would be wiped out." Many of the species at risk are Arctic and Antarctic fauna such as polar bears and emperor penguins. In the Arctic, the waters of Hudson Bay are ice-free for three weeks longer than they were thirty years ago, affecting polar bears, which prefer to hunt on sea ice. Species that rely... Read More

Development and Validation of a Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of Isoniazid in Human Plasma

Image Isoniazid (INH) is a major antituberculosis treatment, characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and a large within and between-patient variability. Thus, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of this drug is mandatory in order to optimize the efficacy and minimize occurrence of toxic side effects of this drug.  High performance liquid chromatography was performed using a chromatograph Ultimate 3000®. The extraction of INH from plasma was realized using trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Nicotinamide was used as an internal standard (IS). The mobile phase consisted of the buffer solution ammonium acetate (99%) 0.05 M adjusted by glacial acetic acid to pH 6 (99%), and... Read More

Ecosystems depends on ecological knowledge

Image Applied ecology includes all disciplines that are related to human activities so that it does not only cover agriculture and forestry but also global change. It has two study categories. The first involves the outputs or those fields that address the use and management of the environment, particularly for its ecosystem services and exploitable resources. The second are the inputs or those that are concerned with the management strategies or human influences on the ecosystem or biodiversity. The discipline is often linked to ecological management on the grounds that the effective management of natural ecosystems depends on ecological knowledge. It... Read More

Biogeographic realms

Image The realms delineate the large areas of the Earth's surface within which organisms have been evolving in relative isolation over long periods of time, separated from one another by geographic features, such as oceans, broad deserts, or high mountain ranges, that constitute barriers to migration. As such, biogeographic realm designations are used to indicate general groupings of organisms based on their shared biogeography. Biogeographic realms correspond to the floristic kingdoms of botany or zoogeographic regions of zoology. Biogeographic realms are characterized by the evolutionary history of the organisms they contain. They are distinct from biomes, also known as major habitat... Read More

Sotos syndrome

Image Sotos syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by excessive physical growth during the first years of life. Excessive growth often starts in infancy and continues into the early teen years. The disorder may be accompanied by autism,mild intellectual disability, delayed motor, cognitive, and social development, hypotonia (low muscle tone), and speech impairments. Children with Sotos syndrome tend to be large at birth and are often taller, heavier, and have relatively large skulls (macrocephaly) than is normal for their age. SYMPTOMS This syndrome is characterized by overgrowth and advanced bone age. Affected individuals are dysmorphic, with macrodolichocephaly, downslanting palpebral fissures and a pointed chin. The facial appearance is most... Read More

Gerstmann syndrome

Image Gerstmann syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by a constellation of symptoms that suggests the presence of a lesion usually near the temporal and parietal lobe junction. Damage to the inferior parietal lobule of the dominant hemisphere results in Gerstmann syndrome. SYMPTOMS Gerstmann syndrome is characterized by four primary symptoms: Dysgraphia/agraphia: deficiency in the ability to write Dyscalculia/acalculia: difficulty in learning or comprehending mathematics. Finger agnosia: inability to distinguish the fingers on the hand Left-right disorientation CAUSES This disorder is often associated with brain lesions in the dominant (usually left) hemisphere including the angular and supramarginal gyri (Brodmann area 39 and 40 respectively) near the temporal and parietal lobe junction. There is significant debate in the scientific... Read More

Esophagogastroduodenoscopyassociated gastrointestinal perforations: A single-center experience

Image Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is commonly used in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Our aim was to define the risk of perforation associated with EGD and identify patients who required operative intervention. We retrospectively reviewed 72 patients from our institution plus 5 transferred patients who sustained EGD-associated perforations from January 1996 through July 2008. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, transthoracic echocardiography, and concurrent colonoscopy procedures were excluded. Perforations in 72 of 217,507 EGD procedures were identified (incidence, 0.033%); 124,844 EGDs included an interventional procedure and 92,663 were examination only. The incidence of perforation was similar whether an... Read More

Unsedated transnasal EGD in daily practice: results with 1100 consecutive patients

Image EGD can be performed transnasally in adults by using small-diameter endoscopes. A large prospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and tolerance of diagnostic transnasal EGD in daily practice. Unsedated transnasal EGD was attempted in 1100 consecutive patients, in 3 different institutions, by using a 5.9-mm or a 5.3-mm diameter endoscope.The operator determined whether the procedure was successful or unsuccessful, the reason for failures, and any side effects. The influence of gender, age, endoscope diameter, and type of topical anesthesia on the success or failure of the procedure was evaluated. Patients who previously had undergone peroral EGD were queried... Read More

Gender and Other Factors Associated with the Nonmedical Use of Abusable Prescription Drugs

Image Although there is extensive research on gender differences in the use of alcohol and illicit substances, few studies have examined gender differences in nonmedical prescription drug use. Using data from the 1991 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), based on a sample of 3185 persons, logistic regression analysis is employed to determine how gender and other factors affect the likelihood of past-year nonmedical prescription drug use. Analysis revealed that women are significantly more likely than men to use any prescription drug, and that this gender difference is primarily driven by women’s increased risk for narcotic analgesic and minor tranquilizer nonmedical... Read More

Equilibrium Price Dispersion in Retail Markets for Prescription Drugs

Image This study seeks to establish the empirical importance of price dispersion due to costly consumer search by examining retail prices for prescription drugs. Posted prices in two geographically distinct markets are shown to vary considerably acrosspharmacieswithinthesame market, even after one controls for variation due to pharmacy differences. Pharmacy heterogeneity accounts for at most one-third of the observed price dispersion. The empirical analysis hinges on the observation that consumers’ incentives to price-shop depend on characteristics of the drug therapy. Cross-sectional patterns in price distributions across drugs are consistent with the predictions of a search model: prices for repeatedly purchased prescriptions (for... Read More

Comparison of Medical and Surgical Therapy for Complicated Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Veterans

Image Conventional medical treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease involves lifestyle modifications and combination drug therapy, but few studies have included these features in their protocols. Antireflux surgery has seldom been studied prospectively, and there have been no trials comparing modern medical and surgical treatments for reflux disease. We conducted a long-term, randomized trial of medical therapy (lifestyle modifications and up to four medications) and surgical therapy (Nissen fundoplication) in 247 patients (243 men and 4 women) with peptic esophageal ulcer, stricture, erosive esophagitis, or Barrett's esophagus. They received by random assignment either continuous medical therapy, medical therapy for symptoms only, or... Read More

The Montreal Definition and Classification of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Global Evidence-Based Consensus

Image A globally acceptable definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is desirable for research and clinical practice. The aim of this initiative was to develop a consensus definition and classification that would be useful for patients, physicians, and regulatory agencies. A modified Delphi process was employed to reach consensus using repeated iterative voting. A series of statements was developed by a working group of five experts after a systematic review of the literature in three databases (Embase, Cochrane trials register, Medline). Over a period of 2 yr, the statements were developed, modified, and approved through four rounds of voting.... Read More

Fundamentals of medication error research

Image A medication error is generally defined as a deviation from the physician's medication order as written on the patient's chart. In hospitals, medication errors occur at a rate of about one per patient per day. A dispensing error is one made by pharmacy staff when distributing medications to nursing units or directly to patients in an ambulatory-care pharmacy; the error rates for doses dispensed via the cart-filling process range from 0.87% to 2.9%. Categories of medication errors should be operationally defined before an investigation, and any allowable deviations from the physician's order should be clearly stated. Fourteen error category definitions... Read More

Alcohol and Medication Interactions

Image Many medications can interact with alcohol, thereby altering the metabolism or effects of alcohol and/or the medication. Some of these interactions can occur even at moderate drinking levels and result in adverse health effects for the drinker. Two types of alcohol-medication interactions exist: (1) pharmacokinetic interactions, in which alcohol interferes with the metabolism of the medication, and (2) pharmacodynamic interactions, in which alcohol enhances the effects of the medication, particularly in the central nervous system (e.g., sedation). Pharmacokinetic interactions generally occur in the liver, where both alcohol and many medications are metabolized, frequently by the same enzymes. Numerous classes of... Read More

COVID-19 may have consequences for mental health

Image The global COVID-19 pandemic has affected the physical lives of most people. But now there are also indications that the pandemic has negative consequences for the mental health of the people being infected, the healthcare professionals and the population as a whole. 96% of patients hospitalized for coronavirus infections report experiencing PTSD as a result of their illness. Researchers also found an increased risk of depression, anxiety, and other mental health disorders in those hospitalized for COVID-19. This is shown in a new Danish review of 43 scientific articles that have studied the subject. The review was produced by researchers... Read More

Marketing Investment Allocation: A Portfolio Theoretic Model

Image Marketing is turning simple ideas into the strategy. Marketing makes the difference between competing ‘Companies’ fortunes as working smarter becomes more effective than working harder. Marketing investment allocation becomes crucial to these differences. The customer base can be split up into the “current” or extant retained customers and those customers newly acquired called the “referrals”. Given the customer lifetime values of the “current” and the “referrals” segments, the risk-return trade-offs would considerably differ between these two segments. The optimal allocation of marketing investment to a customer segment depends not only on the riskiness of the returns but also on the... Read More


Image Definition Bone Screws are a special type of Orthopedic Screws, used for surgery. They are also called Bone Fixation Screws or Cancellous Bone Screws. These Bone Screws are meant to stabilize fractures. The Orthopedic Screws may or may not be removed after the bone gets fully healed. The Bone Fixation Screws can be used to place external fixators. They can be used as implants as well. Safe and inert raw material goes into the production of the GPC Bone Screws. Stainless Steel as well as Titanium Orthopaedic Screws are produced by us.   Classification Orthopaedics screws may be classified depending... Read More

Dysexecutive syndrome : Causes and symptoms

Image Dysexecutive syndrome (DES) consists of a group of symptoms, usually resulting from brain damage, that fall into cognitive, behavioural and emotional categories and tend to occur together. The term was introduced by Alan Baddeley to describe a common pattern of dysfunction in executive functions, such as planning, abstract thinking, flexibility and behavioural control. SYMPTOMS Symptoms of DES fall into three broad categories: cognitive, emotional and behavioural. Many of the symptoms can be seen as a direct result of impairment to the central executive component of working memory, which is responsible for attentional control and inhibition. Although many of the symptoms regularly co-occur, it is common to encounter... Read More

Hemodialysis and its complications

Image Hemodialysis is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally. This type of dialysis achieves the extracorporeal removal of waste products such as creatinine and urea and free water from the blood when the kidneys are in a state of kidney failure. Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement therapies (the other two being kidney transplant and peritoneal dialysis). An alternative method for extracorporeal separation of blood components such as plasma or cells is apheresis. COMPLICATIONS FLUID SHIFTS Hemodialysis often involves fluid removal, because most patients with renal failure pass little or no urine. Side effects caused by removing too much fluid and/or removing fluid too rapidly include low blood pressure, fatigue, chest pains, leg-cramps, nausea and headaches. These symptoms... Read More

Call for Discussion Papers on the COVID-19 epidemic

Image Covid-19 The COVID-19 epidemic has caused substantial shocks on food systems worldwide. Trade and border restrictions, as well as regional lockdowns, are disrupting food supply chains and preventing the availability of financial and human capital. This contingent situation has reduced agricultural outputs and employment in several regions with possible consequences on food access and social inequalities, and thus on food security. Furthermore, the epidemic is having profound impacts on people’s lifestyles including consumers’ purchasing and eating behaviour: those effects will be likely to generate shocks on the food industry. Moreover, the epidemic is having important impacts on many food-related sectors... Read More

Brain Lesions: To Biopsy or Not To Biopsy. A Single Institution Experience

Image Patients presenting with intracranial lesions represent a diagnostic dilemma. Imaging and laboratory tests lack the specificity needed for decision-making. We aimed to detect what intervention and findings made the study patients eligible for brain biopsy, for observation or for treatment. Methods: From January 2010 to December 2012, electronic medical records of 312 adult patients were selected from the hospital database using keywords aimed to identify brain lesions, in two-affiliated tertiary-care, county-based hospitals in Houston, Texas. Decision to biopsy, to observe or to treat brain lesions was the main outcome variable. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging information were correlated with the main... Read More

Development of 45W Q-band Space Qualified TWTs

Image Beijing Vacuum Electronics Research Institute (BVERI) has developed a series of Ka band space traveling wave tubes (TWTs) with saturation power of 12-100 W and efficiency of 55-63% for data transmission and communication for both conduction and radiation cooling. Recently Q-band space TWTs with conduction-cooled and space qualified are developed which are capable of delivering over 45W saturated RF power with overall efficiency exceeding 45%. This paper gives the main technical characteristics of Q-band space TWTs’ design, performances and qualification tests over 5.5 GHz bandwidth.Next-generation satellite systems need high-reliability millimeterwave amplifiers for downlink broadband communications to amplify and transfer a... Read More

HPLC Profiles of Onion Fructooligosaccharides and Inulin and their Prebiotic Effects on Modulating Key Markers of Colon Function, Calcium Metabolism and Bone Mass in Rat Model

Image The objective of this study was to purify and characterize the fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin (INU) contents in local onion varieties. Vigorous extraction of the onion with hot water recovered over 93% of the initial non digestible carbohydrates (NDC). HPLC separation and quantitation showed that total FOS accounted for 20% and INU for 16% of the dry onion NDC extract. The prebiotic effect of onion NDC was tested by incorporating the freeze dried onion NDC at 13% in semisynthetic diet fed to Sprague Dawley rats for 5 weeks. Commercial FOS and INU were run in parallel and served as references.... Read More

Isoenzymes of Liver Alkaline Phosphatase in Serum of Patients with Hepatobiliary Disorders

Image The isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP; EC present in the [unknown]sera of 116 patients with hepatobiliary disease were studied by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate. Individual liver isoenzyme bands were identified and quantitated by densitometric scanning. The occurrence and magnitude of increase of the isoenzyme bands of liver ALP (α2 alone or α1 and α2) are related to diagnosis. Of the cases studied, 30% showed only the α2 band of liver ALP. A couplet of liver isoenzyme bands (α1 and α2) was seen in 70% of the cases studied. The isolated α2 band occurred in 26 of 36 patients with... Read More

A comparison between two neural network rule extraction techniques for the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders

Image Neural networks have been widely used as tools for prediction in medicine. We expect to see even more applications of neural networks for medical diagnosis as re cently developed neural network rule extraction algorithms make it possible for the decision process of a trained network to be expressed as classification rules. These rules are more comprehensible to a human user than the classification process of the networks which involves complex nonlinear mapping of the input data. This paper reports the results from two neural network rule extraction techniques, NeuroLinear and NeuroRule applied to the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders. The data... Read More

Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES) trial

Image Back pain, one of the most prevalent conditions afflicting American adults, is the leading reason for using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Yoga is an increasingly popular "mind-body" CAM therapy often used for relieving back pain and several small studies have found yoga effective for this condition. This study will assess whether yoga is effective for treating chronic low back pain compared with self care and exercise and will explore the mechanisms responsible for any observed benefits. A total of 210 participants with low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from primary care clinics of a... Read More

Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain

Image The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects’ body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and superoxide dismutase activities were measured before and after a 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program. [Results] After the 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program, the exercise group had significantly... Read More

Emerging Drugs of Abuse: Clinical and Legal Considerations

Image Over the past several decades, nontraditional drugs of abuse, including bath salts, synthetic cannabinoids, and salvia, have increased in popularity and use. Despite this fact, they remain unfamiliar to many healthcare providers. Commonly marketed as “legal highs,” these substances are being used for their desired neuropsychiatric effects, taking advantage of their accessibility, low cost, variable legality, and limited detection on traditional urine drug screens. Similar to traditional drugs of abuse, these substances have varying degrees of toxicity and may lead to potentially adverse effects, ranging from benign to life threatening. This paper offers a review of three of the more... Read More

Emerging drugs for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Image Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and usually lethal lung disorder of unknown etiology. The disease is characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, formation of activated fibroblasts/ myofibroblasts foci and finally by the exaggerated accumulation of extracellular matrix with the subsequent destruction of the lung architecture. The long-term survival is distinctly poor, with only a 20 -- 30% survival 5 years after the time of diagnosis. Actually, regardless of extensive research, no current therapy has been shown to either reverse or stop the progression of this disease. The authors searched the Medline database from January 1990 to December... Read More


Image Semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes exhibit novel electronic and optical properties owing to their unique structural one-dimensionality and possible quantum confinement effects in two dimensions. With a broad selection of compositions and band structures, these one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are considered to be the critical components in a wide range of potential nanoscale device applications. To fully exploit these one-dimensional nanostructures, current research has focused on rational synthetic control of one-dimensional nanoscale building blocks, novel properties characterization and device fabrication based on nanowire building blocks, and integration of nanowire elements into complex functional architectures. Significant progress has been made in a few... Read More

Challenges for semiconductor spintronics

Image High-volume information-processing and communications devices are at present based on semiconductor devices, whereas information-storage devices rely on multilayers of magnetic metals and insulators. Switching within information-processing devices is performed by the controlled motion of small pools of charge, whereas in the magnetic storage devices information storage and retrieval is performed by reorienting magnetic domains (although charge motion is often used for the fi nal stage of readout). Semiconductor spintronics offers a possible direction towards the development of hybrid devices that could perform all three of these operations, logic, communications and storage, within the same materials technology. By taking advantage of... Read More

Complication Rates Relating to the Degree of Displacement of Femoral Neck Fractures: a Clinical Study of 878 Internally Fixed Intracapsular Fractures

Image We undertook this large prospective study of intracapsular fractures treated with internal fixation to evaluate whether the degree of initial fracture displacement correlated to fracture healing complications including nonunion and avascular necrosis. We classified intracapsular fractures based on anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, as undisplaced, partially displaced and fully displaced. In total 878 patients with a non-pathological intracapsular hip fracture included in this study were treated by fixation of the fracture with three cancellous screws. Overall complications of fracture healing were 23.2% for undisplaced, 31.1% for partially displaced and 45.6% for fully displaced fractures showing correlation between fracture displacement and complication... Read More

Ephaptic coupling

Image Ephaptic coupling is a form of communication within the nervous system and is distinct from direct communication systems like electrical synapses and chemical synapses. It may refer to the coupling of adjacent (touching) nerve fibers caused by the exchange of ions between the cells, or it may refer to coupling of nerve fibers as a result of local electric fields. In either case ephaptic coupling can influence the synchronization and timing of action potential firing in neurons. Myelination is thought to inhibit ephaptic interactions. MECHANISM AND EFFECTS Role in excitation and inhibition The early work performed by Katz and Schmitt demonstrated that ephaptic coupling between the two adjacent nerves was insufficient... Read More

Marchiafava–Bignami disease -its symptoms and treatment

Image Marchiafava–Bignami disease is a progressive neurological disease of alcoholism, characterized by corpus callosum demyelination and necrosis and subsequent atrophy. The disease was first described in 1903 by the Italian pathologists Amico Bignami and Ettore Marchiafava in an Italian Chianti drinker. In this autopsy, Marchiafava and Bignami noticed that the middle two-thirds of the corpus callosum were necrotic. It is very difficult to diagnose and there is no specific treatment.  Symptoms Symptoms can include, but are not limited to lack of consciousness, aggression, seizures, depression, hemiparesis, ataxia, apraxia, coma, etc. There will also be lesions in the corpus callosum. Causes It is classically associated with chronic alcoholism especially with red wine consumption and sometimes associated nutritional deficiencies.Alcoholism can also cause thiamine deficiency, which is also observed to... Read More

Sensory transmission in the gastrointestinal tract

Image The gastrointestinal (GI) tract must balance ostensibly opposite functions. On the one hand, it must undertake the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients. At the same time, the GI tract must protect itself from potential harmful antigenic and pathogenic material. Central to these processes is the ability to sense the mechanical and chemical environment in the gut wall and lumen in order to orchestrate the appropriate response that facilitates nutrient assimilation or the rapid expulsion through diarrhoea and/or vomiting. In this respect, the GI tract is richly endowed with sensory elements that monitor  thegut environment. Enteric neurones provide one source of such sensory innervation and... Read More

CT of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Principles and Interpretation

Image The experience accumulated in daily abdominal CT scanning and CT evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions has generated helpful technical guidelines and some reliable principles of interpretatlon. These general principles are briefly discussed in this review, and the importance of performing a CT examination that is adequate for the detection and evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions is stressed. CT features useful in difterentiating benign from malignant lesions, limitations and pftfalls in CT interpretstion, overlap in the CT appearance, and classical CT features leading to specific diagnoses are described and illustrated. Although CT is established as one of the most important techniques for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, it should be ... Read More

Association of Cardiac Injury With Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China

Image IMPORTANCE Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide since December 2019. However, information on cardiac injury in patients affected by COVID-19 is limited. OBJECTIVE To explore the association between cardiac injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cohort study was conducted from January 20, 2020, to February 10, 2020, in a single center at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; the final date of follow-up was February 15, 2020. All consecutive inpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in this study.... Read More

A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19

Image Purpose: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern. As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical treatment, although it is much needed for patient contracting the severe form of the disease. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding chlo￾roquine for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and three trial Registries were searched for studies on the use of chloroquine in pa￾tients with COVID-19. Results: We included six articles (one narrative letter, one in-vitro study, one editorial, expert consensus paper, two national guideline documents) and 23 ongoing clinical... Read More

Energy Management for Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

Image Portable embedded computing systems require energy autonomy. This is achieved by batteries serving as a dedicated energy source. The requirement of portability places severe restrictions on size and weight, which in turn limits the amount of energy that is continuously available to maintain system operability. For these reasons, efficient energy utilization has become one of the key challenges to the designer of battery-powered embedded computing systems.In this paper, we first present a novel analytical battery model, which can be used for the battery lifetime estimation. The high quality of the proposed model is demonstrated with measurements and simulations. Using this... Read More

Design of a Solar-Harvesting Circuit for Batteryless Embedded Systems

Image The limited battery lifetime of modern embedded systems and mobile devices necessitates frequent battery recharging or replacement. Solar energy and small-size photovoltaic (PV) systems are attractive solutions to increase the autonomy of embedded and personal devices attempting to achieve perpetual operation. We present a batteryless solar-harvesting circuit that is tailored to the needs of low-power applications. The harvester performs maximum-power-point tracking of solar energy collection under nonstationary light conditions, with high efficiency and low energy cost exploiting miniaturized PV modules. We characterize the performance of the circuit by means of simulation and extensive testing under various charging and discharging conditions.... Read More

A Therapy to Live By: Public Health, the Self and Nationalism in the Practice of a North Indian Yoga Society

Image In this article I focus on the relationship between concepts of self and health in modern North India. Drawing on field research in a popular yoga society, I argue that yoga therapy, as practiced by the Bharatiya Yog Sansthan of Delhi, provides a reconceptualization of what can be meant by public health. Using studies that challenge both the essentialist and epistemologi￾cal facticity of the self, I show how the discourse and practice of yoga is implicated in, and derived from, a complex search for self definition in terms of health; health which is conceived of as a public regimen that... Read More

Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study

Image Fifty three patients with asthma underwent training for two weeks in an integrated set of yoga exercises, including breathing exercises, suryanamaskar, yogasana (physical postures), pranayama (breath slowing techniques), dhyana (meditation), and a devotional session, and were told to practise these exercises for 65 minutes daily. They were then compared with a  controlgroup of 53 patients with asthma matched for age,sex, and type and severity of asthma, who continued to take their usual drugs. There was a significantly greater improvement in the group who practised yoga in the weekly number of attacks of asthma, scores for drug treatment, and peak flow... Read More

Use of Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, and Yoga Practices With Low-Income and/or Uninsured Patients With Depression and/or Anxiety

Image This pilot study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness practices, including self-compassion and yoga, on depression and/or anxiety in uninsured and/or low-income patients. Design: The design was repeated measures with one group. Method: Patients received 8 weeks of mindfulness training including self-compassion and yoga. Depression and anxiety symptoms, self-compassion, and psychological well-being were measured four times. Findings: Interventions were effective in helping uninsured and low-income patients reduce depression and/or anxiety symptoms. Conclusion: This study may have implications for a cost-effective treatment for these disorders. The findings from this study can provide useful information to health care providers. ... Read More

Journal of Physics Research and Application

Image Physics from ancient greek means 'knowledge of nature', is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century these natural... Read More

Journal of Trauma and Rehabilitation on depression

Image Journal of Trauma and Rehabilitation is a peer reviewed journal that focuses on the advancements in the research of Traumatic sciences and its medical rehabilitation. This Journal considers almost all aspects of research related to trauma sciences, psychiatry and its rehabilitation methods from all countries. The longer we live, the more inevitable it is that we will experience trauma. Trauma is the response to a deeply distressing or disturbing event that overwhelms an individual’s ability to cope, causes feelings of helplessness, diminishes their sense of self and their ability to feel the full range of emotions and experiences. It does... Read More

Journal of Immunological Techniques & Infectious Diseases now accepting articles

Image We are happy to introduce you our journal which is a peer reviewed academic journal (ISSN NO: 2329-9541) which aims to publish the articles that makes a significant contribution in advancing knowledge for immunological application in the treatment of various infectious diseases. Our Journal includes all major themes pertaining to Immunity, Immunization techniques, Vaccination, Epidemology and treatment of infectious diseases. The journal accepts almost all types of write-ups like research articles, reviews, case reports, commentary, letter to the editor, mini review, opinion, short communication, book review, editorials etc. On the behalf of Editorial in Chief we are... Read More

Pharmaceutics & Drug Delivery Research

Image Pharmaceutics & Drug Delivery Research is a subscription based journal that provides a range of options to purchase our articles and also permits unlimited Internet Access to complete Journal content. It accepts research, review papers, online letters to the editors & brief comments on previously published articles or other relevant findings in SciTechnol. Articles submitted by authors are evaluated by a group of peer review experts in the field and ensures that the published articles are of high quality, reflect solid scholarship in their fields, and that the information they contain is accurate and reliable. The journal accepts almost all... Read More

Shockwave therapy.

Image Shockwave therapy for painful disorders is an inexpensive, non-surgical treatment. Learn more about symptoms, medical results, scientific research and experience. Shockwave therapy is a common procedure used to treat shoulder trauma, chronic Achilles tendonitis, plantar fasciitis, tendinopathy of the elbow and myofascial syndrome (muscle pain) chronic levels. Accepting paper regarding field of physiotherapy you can submit your submission here: https://www.scitechnol.com/submission/ You can also Email us: physicaltherapy@scitecjournals.com For more information check the website https://www.scitechnol.com/... Read More

Charcot Marie Tooth.

Image Specificity. Neurology: Neurology. Charcot – Marie – Tooth disease (CMT) is a peripheral nervous system's inherited motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by a gradual loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation in various parts of the body. A group of hereditary disorders in the arms and legs which harm the nerves. Charcot-Marie-Tooth is a degenerative nerve condition usually arising in puberty or early adulthood. Symptoms include muscle fatigue, reduced muscle strength, decreased sensitivity, hammer toes and high arches. Physiotherapy, and physical therapy are the primary therapies. Medication has the potential to reduce discomfort. Share your comments on topic Email us:... Read More

Activation energy.

Image Activation energy can be defined as the magnitude of the potential barrier (sometimes referred to as the energy barrier) that separates minima from the potential energy surface of the initial and final thermodynamic state. In order to proceed at a reasonable rate for a chemical reaction or division, the system temperature should be sufficiently high so that there is a significant number of molecules with translational energy equal to or greater than the activation energy. In joules per mole (J / mol), kilojoules per mole (kJ / mol), or kilocalories per mole (kcal / mol), the activation energy ( Ea)... Read More

Serum used in numerous diagnostic tests

Image Blood Serum is the fluid and solute component of blood which does not play a role in clotting. It may be defined as blood plasma without fibrinogens. Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting; all electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, hormones; and any exogenous substances (e.g., drugs or microorganisms). Serum does not contain white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), platelets, or clotting factors. The study of serum is serology. Serum is used in numerous diagnostic tests as well as blood typing. Measuring the concentration of various molecules can be useful for many applications, such as determining the therapeutic... Read More

Reverse transcriptases are used by retroviruses

Image A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptases are used by retroviruses to replicate their genomes, by retrotransposon mobile genetic elements to proliferate within the host genome, by eukaryotic cells to extend the telomeres at the ends of their linear chromosomes, and by some non-retroviruses such as the hepatitis B virus, a member of the Hepadnaviridae, which are dsDNA-RT viruses. Retroviral RT has three sequential biochemical activities: RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity, ribonuclease H (RNAse H), and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. Collectively, these activities enable... Read More


Image In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks. There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them. In chemical compounds, polymerization can occur via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to the functional groups present in the reactants and their inherent steric effects. In more straightforward polymerizations, alkenes form polymers through relatively simple radical reactions; in contrast, reactions involving substitution at a carbonyl group require more complex synthesis due to the way in which reactants polymerize.Alkanes can... Read More

Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with abundant cytoplasm

Image Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, are white blood cells that originate in the bone marrow and secrete large quantities of proteins called antibodies in response to being presented specific substances called antigens. These antibodies are transported from the plasma cells by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system to the site of the target antigen (foreign substance), where they initiate its neutralization or destruction. B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modeled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with abundant cytoplasm and a characteristic appearance on light... Read More

Nucleotides play a central role in metabolism

Image Nucleotides are molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate group. They are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.They are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three sub unit molecules: a nitrogenous base (also known as nucleobase), a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate group consisting of one to three phosphates. The four nitrogenous bases present in DNA... Read More

Neuroimmunology combining Neuroscience and Immunology

Image Neuroimmunology is a field combining neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system. Neuroimmunologists seek to better understand the interactions of these two complex systems during development, homeostasis, and response to injuries. A long-term goal of this rapidly developing research area is to further develop our understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases, some of which have no clear etiology. In doing so, neuroimmunology contributes to development of new pharmacological treatments for several neurological conditions. Many types of interactions involve both the nervous and immune systems including the physiological functioning of the... Read More

Mutagen produces mutations in the DNA

Image In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens, although not always necessarily so. All mutagens have characteristic mutational signatures with some chemicals becoming mutagenic through cellular processes. Not all mutations are caused by mutagens: so-called "spontaneous mutations" occur due to spontaneous hydrolysis, errors in DNA replication, repair and recombination. Mutagens can cause changes to the DNA and are therefore genotoxic. They can... Read More

Tracheostomy Care Task Force for Noncritical Care Tracheostomized Patients

Image To determine the impact of an intensivist lead tracheostomy care team on the number of successful decannulations in non-critically ill patients and the time required for such decannulations and discharge from the hospital. Methods. Following the introduction of a multidisciplinary tracheostomy care task force, data was collected prospectively from July to December 2009. Matching control data was collected retrospectively from January to June 2009. Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney Utest were used to compare the differences in study variables with an α of 0.05. Results. A total of 44 and 47 patients with percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) were discharged from the ICU pre-... Read More


Image A gene gun or biolistic particle delivery system is a device used to deliver exogenous DNA (transgenes), RNA, or protein to cells. By coating particles of a heavy metal with a gene of interest and firing these micro-projectiles into cells using mechanical force, an integration of desired genetic information can be induced into cells. The technique involved with such micro-projectile delivery of DNA is often referred to as biolistics. This device is able to transform almost any type of cell and is not limited to the transformation of the nucleus; it can also transform organelles, including plastids and mitochondria. BIOLISTIC CONSTRUCT DESIGN Biolistic transformation involves the integration of a functional fragment of DNA—known as a DNA... Read More


Image A bio-battery is an energy storing device that is powered by organic compounds, usually being glucose, such as the glucose in human blood. When enzymes in human bodies break down glucose, several electrons and protons are released. Therefore, by using enzymes to break down glucose, bio-batteries directly receive energy from glucose. These batteries then store this energy for later use. This concept is almost identical to how both plants and many animals obtain energy.  WORKING OF BIOBATTERY Bio-batteries consist of an anode, cathode, separator and electrolyte with each component layered on top of another. Anodes and cathodes are the positive and negative areas on a battery that allow electrons to flow in... Read More

Aquatic physiotherapy.

Image Aquatic therapy refers to water-borne therapies and activities for relaxation, wellness, physical rehabilitation and other medical gain. A certified aquatic therapist usually gives a person who is undergoing care in a heated therapy pool constant attendance. The methods used in aquatic therapy include Aqua Running, Bad Ragaz Ring Method, Burdenko Method and other types of aquatic bodywork. Which include neurological conditions, spine pain, musculoskeletal pain, postoperative orthopedic rehabilitation, developmental disabilities, and pressure ulcers. It refers to water-based therapies or therapeutic purpose exercises particularly for relaxation, wellness, and physical rehabilitation. Treatments and exercises are performed while the water is floating, partially... Read More

Angelman disorder.

Image Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disease that affects the nervous system most of all. Symptoms include a small head with a distinctive facial appearance, serious intellectual disability, cognitive disability, speech difficulties, and difficulties with balance with movement, hallucinations, and issues with sleep. Children tend to have a happy personality and have a special interest in water. The symptoms are usually noticeable within a year. Angelman syndrome is caused by a lack of function of a part of the chromosome 15 inherited from a mother of a person. Most of the time, this is due to the deletion or mutation... Read More

Science of calorimeter.

Image Calorimetry is the science or act of calculating changes in a body's state variables in order to extract the heat transfer associated with changes in its condition attributable, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under defined constraints. Calorimetry calculates the heat produced by living organisms by measuring either their production of carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste (often ammonia in aquatic or terrestrial organisms) or their consumption of oxygen. Comment your views through Email: chemengineerapp@scitecjournals.com We are accepting Submission regarding the chemistry field directly online https://www.scitechnol.com/submission/ For more information check our website https://www.scitechnol.com/ you can also apply... Read More

Fractures of the Clavicle

Image Recent studies favor surgical management of displaced clavicle fractures. Displacement is measured using anterior-posterior (AP) X-rays. Since displacement can occur in all three dimensions, however, standard methods of evaluation can be difficult and inaccurate. This study was conducted to determine the X-ray angle that provides the most accurate assessment. Nine CT scans of acute displaced clavicle fractures were analyzed with AmiraDev imaging software. 3D measurements for degrees of shortening and fracture displacement of the fracture clavicle were taken. Using a segmentation and manipulation module, five digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) mimicking AP X-rays were created for every CT, with each DDR... Read More

Flow cytometry

Image Flow cytometry (FCM) is a technique used to detect and measure physical and chemical characteristics of a population of cells or particles.In this process, a sample containing cells or particles is suspended in a fluid and injected into the flow cytometer instrument. The sample is focused to ideally flow one cell at a time through a laser beam, where the light scattered is characteristic to the cells and their components. Cells are often labeled with fluorescent markers so light is absorbed and then emitted in a band of wavelengths. Tens of thousands of cells can be quickly examined and the data gathered are processed... Read More


Image SDS-PAGE is an electrophoresis method that allows protein separation by mass. The medium (also referred to as ′matrix′) is a polyacrylamide-based discontinuous gel.SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyacrylamide gel largely eliminates the influence of the structure and charge, and proteins are separated solely based on polypeptide chain length. It uses sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules to help identify and isolate protein molecules.SDS-PAGE is a discontinuous electrophoretic system developed by Ulrich K. Laemmli which is commonly used as a method to separate proteins with molecular masses between 5 and 250 KDa.The publication describing it is the most frequently cited paper by a single author, and the second... Read More

Current physiotherapy.

Image Interferential current therapy is an effective therapy option used by many physiotherapy clinics to relieve pain and accelerate the self-healing process, getting your body back to a healthy, pain Free State. The high frequency signals of an IFC penetrate through the skin into deeper lying muscle tissues. Electrodes are placed on your skin around the injured body part. The Interferential Current device then transmits electrical impulses in minute quantities through your skin. Underlying tissue and nerves are stimulated which begins the healing properties. These impulses are not painful in the least. In fact, patients describe the sensation as a minor... Read More

Albinism is a congenital disorder.

Image Albinism is a congenital condition characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes in humans. There are a variety of vision disorders associated with albinism, such as photophobia, nystagmus, and amblyopia. Lacking skin pigmentation makes sunburn and skin cancers more susceptible. Albinism can be associated with defects in the transport of melanin granules in rare cases such as the Chédiak – Higashi syndrome. This also affects important granules that are present in immune cells which lead to increased susceptibility to infection. Albinism is the result of recessive gene allele inheritance, and is believed... Read More

Isotope of element.

Image : Isotopes are variations of a particular chemical element that vary in number of neutrons, and consequently in number of nucleons. Both isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom but different number of neutrons. The number of protons within the nucleus of the atom is called the atomic number which is equal to the number of electrons in the atom which is neutral (non-ionized). Could atomic number identify a particular element, but not the isotope; the number of neutrons in an atom of a given element can vary widely. The number of nucleons... Read More

Temporomandibular Joint.

Image Neck Pain may be linked to other neighboring disorders such as the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ). This study aimed to investigate whether there is benefit in incorporating TMJ therapies to routine physiotherapy compared to a control group in patients with non-specific chronic neck pain. Left untreated, the TMJ problems can get more serious and more difficult to treat at the same time. Chronic, severe headaches may cause TMJ disorder. Another common issue with untreated TMJ disorder is deterioration of the dentistry. The irregular surface of a bite is one cause of TMJ dysfunction. Accepting paper regarding field of physiotherapy you can... Read More

Exothermic processes.

Image The term exothermic process describes a process or reaction in thermodynamics that releases energy from the system to its environment, typically in the form of heat, but often in the form of light, electricity, or sound. The definition is also applied to chemical reactions in the physical sciences, such as in chemical bond energy which is converted into thermal energy (heat). Simply put, more energy was released into the surrounding after an exothermic reaction than was consumed to start and sustain the reaction. An example would be a candle burning, which is the amount of calories emitted by combustion. An... Read More

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia the genetic disease.

Image Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is one of many autosomal recessive diseases arising from gene mutations for enzymes mediating biochemical steps of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids formed by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis) from cholesterol. Most of these conditions include excessive or defective sex steroid activity, and can alter the development of primary or secondary sex characteristics in some babies, children or adults affected. Each type of CAH has a particular defective gene associated with it. The most common form (90–95 per cent of cases) is the 21-hydroxylase gene found as part of the HLA complex on 6p21.3. 21-Hydroxylase deficiency results from... Read More

Integrating Yoga Therapy in the Management of Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report

Image The Journal focuses on integrative medicine, urinary incontinence, yoga.A 63-year-old overweight female prediagnosed of stress urinary incontinence presented with exacerbated events of urine leakage. She was advised a residential lifestyle and behavioral program, primarily consisting of a monitored yoga therapy module, apart from her ongoing anticholinergic medicine, for 21 days. Assessments were based on a frequency volume chart, a bladder diary for the entire duration of treatment, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form questionnaire on the days of admission and discharge. A total of 1.9 kg of weight loss was observed during her stay. Usage of... Read More

A National Survey of Yoga Instructors and their Delivery of Yoga Therapy

Image Yoga therapy may improve a variety of symptoms and health conditions, but little is known about how yoga therapy is being delivered in the real world. The purpose of this study was to describe the delivery of yoga therapy by yoga instructors across the U.S. In this cross-sectional survey, certified instructors were recruited from the Iyengar Yoga National Association, United States (IYNAUS) (n = 966) via an email that contained a link to an anonymous online survey that collected information on demographics, their delivery of yoga therapy, and the health conditions and symptoms seen and records kept by the instructors.... Read More

The OTSC Proctology clip system for anal fistula closure: First prospective clinical data

Image Anorectal fistulas represen ta troublesome condition for both patient and surgeon.TheOTSC Proctologyclip system is a new device for transanal anorectal fistula closure. The OTSC Proctology system was evaluated in a prospective clinical study undertaken in two surgical proctological centers. Ten patients (three women, seven men; median age 55 years, range 25-73 years) with nine transsphincteric and one suprasphincteric fistulas were enrolled into thestudy. Themedianoperationtimewas30minutes(range20-45minutes).Therewerenointraoperativetechnical or surgical complications. Postoperatively, no patient reported intolerable discomfort, immoderate pain or foreign body sensation intheanalregion.At follow-up examination six months after surgery, nine out often patients had no clinical signsor symptoms of their previous fistula and... Read More

Prospective pilot study of anorectal fistula closure with the OTSC Proctology

Image The OTSC Proctology is a surgical device for anorectal fistula closure. It consists of a super-elastic nitinol clip, which is placed (with the aid of a transanal applicator) on the internal fistula opening to achieve healing of the fistula track. A prospective, two-centre clinical pilot study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of the OTSC Proctology in patients with a complex high anorectal fistula. Method In patients with a complex anorectal fistula the primary track was debrided using a special brush and the clip was applied to the internal fistula opening. After 6 months the postoperative clinical... Read More

Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies

Image The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus is spreading rapidly, and scientists are endeavoring to discover drugs for its efficacious treatment in China. Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China. The drug is recommended to be included in the next version of the Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19 infection in larger populations in the future. The... Read More

Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Image The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and then spread rapidly worldwide, particularly to China, Japan, and South Korea. Scientists are endeavoring to find antivirals specific to the virus. Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, and favipiravir are currently undergoing clinical studies to test their efficacy and safety in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China; some promising results have been achieved thus far. This article summarizes agents with potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. The virus SARS-CoV-2 (formerly designated 2019nCoV) emerged in December 2019 and then spread rapidly worldwide, particularly to China, Japan, and South Korea. As of... Read More

IC Analyses Including Extracted Inductance Models

Image IC inductance extraction generally produces either port inductances based on simplified current path assumptions or a complete partial inductance matrix. Combining either of these results with the IC interconnect resistance and capacitance models significantly complicates most IC design and verification methodologies. In this tutorial paper we will review some of the analysis and verification problems associated with on–chip inductance, and present a subset of recent results for partially addressing the challenges which lie ahead. Due to the global nature of inductive coupling, extracted inductance models come in various forms and are derived using several simplifying approximations. For IC inductance extraction... Read More

A Comparative Analysis of Two Test Methods of Measuring d- and q-Axes Inductances of Interior Permanent-Magnet Machine

Image The interior permanent-magnet (IPM) machine is used in many industrial drives. In order to analyze performance and to design efficient and fast controllers, accurate knowledge of machine parameters such as - and -axes inductances is essential. Although there are a number of methods available to calculate these inductances, none of them is considered standard. Accuracy levels of all these methods are also not consistent, and some of the measurement methods require complicated arrangements. Among these test methods, the ac standstill test and a newly developed test method that uses vector current control technique are ideal for a laboratory environment. In... Read More

NITEGE-Expression in Meniscal Matrix (apjot)

Image No marker reflecting the pathobiology of meniscal degeneration (MD) is established so far. NITEGE is a hexapeptide fragments produced when aggrecan is cleaved. Methods. In vitro IL-1 exposition of bovine menisci (n = 4) caused extracellular NITEGE deposits detected by immunofluorescence. A retrospective immunohistochemical analysis of (n = 60) patients after meniscectomy for NITEGE deposits was performed. MD was graded as follows: no/little (grade 0/1), medium (grade 2) or severe (grade 3). Results. NITEGE deposits in areas of degeneration were demonstrated in 55% of the patients with grade 2 or 3 MD (PPV & specificity 100%), while no extracellular NITEGE... Read More

Chest therapy for better respiration.

Image Chest physical therapy is the term used for a community of therapies aimed at enhancing respiratory performance, encouraging lung expansion, strengthening respiratory muscles and reducing respiratory secretions. Healthy respiratory safety can't be done without effective clearance of airway secretions. This is usually achieved in a healthy person by means of two mechanisms: mucociliar clearance system (MCS) and cough capacity. Children have numerous illnesses and disorders due to poor lung health and an impaired capacity to clear secretions. The purpose of chest physical therapy, also known as chest physiotherapy, is to help patients breathe more freely and to bring more oxygen... Read More

Apert syndrome in newborns.

Image Apert syndrome is a type of acrocephalosyndacty, a congenital condition which is characterized by head, face, hands, and feet malformations. It is classified as a branchial arch syndrome which affects the first branchial (or pharyngeal) arch, the maxilla precursor, and mandible. Disturbances in the formation of the branchial arches produce permanent and widespread effects in fetal development. In embryology, the hands and feet have selective cells which die in a process called selective cell death, or apoptosis, which causes digit separation. Selective cell death does not occur in the case of acrocephalosyndacty, and skin, and occasionally bone, fuses between the... Read More

Endothermic processes.

Image An endothermic process is any process that involves, usually in the form of heat, or absorbs, energy from its environment. This may be a chemical process, such as ammonium nitrate dissolving in water, or a physical process, such as ice cube melting. All chemical reactions require both the breaking of existing chemical bonds and the formation of new ones. A reaction to breaking a bond often involves energy input and so this cycle is always endothermic. As atoms come together to form new chemical bonds, the combined electrostatic forces leave the bond with a substantial amount of energy. If that... Read More

Electroblotting and its procedure

Image Electroblotting is a method in molecularbiology /biochemistry/immunogenetics to transfer proteins or nucleic acids onto a membrane by using PVDF or nitrocellulose, after gel electrophoresis.The protein or nucleic acid can then be further analyzed using probes such as specific antibodies, ligands like lectins, or stains. This method can be used with all polyacrylamide and agarose gels. An alternative technique for transferring proteins from a gel is capillary blotting. DEVELOPMENT This technique was patented in 1989 by William J. Littlehales under the title "Electroblotting technique for transferring specimens from a polyacrylamide electrophoresis or like gel onto a membrane. PROCEDURE This technique relies upon current and a transfer buffer solution to drive proteins or nucleic acids onto a... Read More

Hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19

Image COVID-19 is a new illness that can affect your lungs and airways. It's caused by a virus called coronavirus. Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. The first confirmed case of what was then an unknown coronavirus was traced back to November 2019 in Hubei province.Common symptoms include fever, dry cough, fatigue, sputum production, ... Read More

Multiple sclerosis: Its causes and genetics

Image Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. While the cause is unclear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells. CAUSES: The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is believed to occur as a result of some combination of genetic and environmental factors such as infectious agents. Theories try to combine the data into likely explanations, but none has proved definitive. While there are a number of environmental risk factors and although some are partly modifiable, further research is needed to determine whether their elimination can... Read More

Range of motion for better result.

Image The motion range (or ROM) is the linear or angular distance that a moving body will usually move while properly connected to another body. It is also called travel range (or ROT), particularly when thinking about mechanical devices and in fields of mechanical engineering. As used in the biomedical field and by weightlifters, motion range refers to the distance and direction that a joint will travel between the flexed position and the extended position. The act of attempting to increase this distance through therapeutic exercises (range of motion therapy — stretching for physiological benefit from flexion to extension) is also... Read More

Poliosis circumscripta a genetic disorder.

Image : Poliosis is the decrease or absence of melanin (or color) in head hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, or any other hairy region. When it affects hair immediately above the forehead it is popularly known as white forelock. Single or less commonly, several white patches on the hair may cause this condition. Some mistake those white patches for simple marks of birth. In poliosis, the hair bulbs of infected hair follicles contain reduced or absent melanin; skin melanocytes are generally not infected. Poliosis occurs in various hereditary syndromes, including piebaldism, Waardenburg syndrome, type I neurofibromatosis, and tuberous sclerosis. It can also occur... Read More

Zwitterions in daily life

Image A zwitterion is a molecule containing an equal number of functional group(s) charged positively and of functional group(s) charged negatively. Zwitterions may also be called internal salts. With amino acids, for example, a chemical equilibrium between the "parent" molecule and the zwitterion will be formed in solution. Betaines are zwitterions that cannot isomerize to an all-neutral form, for instance when the positive charge is on a quaternary ammonium group. Likewise, a molecule that comprises a group of phosphoniums and a group of carboxylate cannot isomerise. Although the equilibrium cannot be experimentally studied in solution between a compound and its zwitterion... Read More

Integrating Yoga Into Cancer Care

Image Although yoga has been practiced in Eastern culture for thousands of years as part of life philosophy, classes in the United States only recently have been offered to people with cancer. The word yoga is derived from the Sanskrit root yuj, meaning to bind, join, and yoke. This reflection of the union of the body, mind, and spirit is what differentiates yoga from general exercise programs. Yoga classes in the United States generally consist of asanas (postures), which are designed to exercise every muscle, nerve, and gland in the body. The postures are combined with pranayama, or rhythmic control of... Read More

Yoga Ameliorates Performance Anxiety and Mood Disturbance in Young Professional Musicians

Image Yoga and meditation can alleviate stress, anxiety, mood disturbance, and musculoskeletal problems, and can enhance cognitive and physical performance. Professional musicians experience high levels of stress, performance anxiety, and debilitating performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The goal of this controlled study was to evaluate the benefits of yoga and meditation for musicians. Young adult professional musicians who volunteered to participate in a 2-month program of yoga and meditation were randomized to a yoga lifestyle intervention group (n = 15) or to a group practicing yoga and meditation only (n = 15). Additional musicians were recruited to a no-practice control group (n... Read More

The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis

Image Controversy surroundstheriskofcolorectalcancer(CRC) in ulcerative colitis (UC). Many studies have investigated this risk and reported widely varying rates. A literature search using Medline with the explosion of references identified 194 studies. Of these, 116 met our inclusion criteria from which the number of patients and cancers detected could be extracted. Overall pooled estimates,with95%confidenceintervals(CI), of cancer prevalence and incidence were obtained using a random eVects model on either the log odds or log incidence scale, as appropriate. The overall prevalence of CRC in any UC patient, based on 116 studies, was estimated to be 3.7% (95% CI 3.2–4.2%).Of the 116 studies, 41... Read More

Folate, Methionine, and Alcohol Intake and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma

Image  Reduced methylation of DNA may contribute to loss of the normal controls on proto-oncogene expression. In humans, hypomethylation of DNA has been observed in colorectal cancers and in their adenomatous polyp precursors. Accumulation of DNA methylation abnormalities, observed during progression of human colorectal neoplasia, may be influenced by certain dietary factors. The apparent protective effect of fresh fruits and vegetables, the major folate sources, on colorectal cancer incidence suggests that a methyldeficient diet contributes to occurrence of this malignancy. Low dietary folate and methionine and high intake of alcohol may reduce levels of S-adenosylmethionlne, which is required for DNA methylation.... Read More

Evaluating Hallucinogenic or Psychedelic Drug Intoxication in an Emergency Setting

Image Under certain conditions or in an overdose setting, several classes of drugs can induce illusions, hallucinations, or delusions. However, one of the hallmark features of hallucinogens or psychedelic agents is their ability to induce states of altered or distorted perception, thought, and mood. Many hallucinogens produce classic sympathomimetic effects; that is, hyperactivity, mydriasis (dilated pupils), hypertension, tachycardia, and hyperthermia. However, the effects vary considerably, depending upon the hallucinogen ingested. Qualitative confirmation by the laboratory that the patient is suffering from hallucinogen intoxication such as marijuana use can be helpful to the clinician. However, the common toxicologic drug screens used by... Read More

Impacts of Drugs on Neurotransmission

Image Drugs of abuse alter the way people think, feel, and behave by disrupting neurotransmission, the process of communication between brain cells. Over the past few decades, studies have established that drug dependence and addiction are features of an organic brain disease caused by drugs' cumulative impacts on neurotransmission. Scientists continue to build on this essential understanding with experiments to further elucidate the physiological bases for drug abuse vulnerability as well as the full dimensions and progression of the disease. The findings provide powerful leads to new medications and behavioral treatments. A person reads. The words on the page enter the... Read More

Search and Pursuit-Evasion in Mobile Robotics

Image Joint research between divergent disciplines has led to significant advances in autonomous search and pursuitevasion with mobile robots. While robotics applications have often served as catalysts for vibrant research at the intersection of traditional disciplines, only recently have researchers undertaken the study of robotic systems for search missions and pursuit-evasion contexts. This article surveys recent advances in this area, which leverage both theoretical foundations and practical implementations to forge new and innovative results. Search and pursuit-evasion problems (also known as “one-sided search” and “adversarial search,” respectively) have traditionally been addressed using two contrasting approaches. One perspective has been to design... Read More


Image Robotic devices are helping shed light on human motor control in health and injury. By using robots to apply novel force fields to the arm, investigators are gaining insight into how the nervous system models its external dynamic environment. The nervous system builds internal models gradually by experience and uses them in combination with impedance and feedback control strategies. Internal models are robust to environmental and neural noise, generalized across space, implemented in multiple brain regions, and developed in childhood. Robots are also being used to assist in repetitive movement practice following neurologic injury, providing insight into movement recovery. Robots... Read More

Mucosal Immunology

Image Mucosal Immunology is the official publication of the Society for Mucosal Immunology (SMI). It aims to provide a forum for both basic and clinical scientists to discuss all aspects of immunity and inflammation involving mucosal tissues. The journal reflects the interests of scientists studying gastrointestinal, pulmonary, nasopharyngeal, oral, ocular, and genitourinary immunology through the publication of original research articles, scholarly reviews, and timely commentaries, editorials and letters. Publication of basic, translational, and clinical studies will all be given equal consideration. In addition, the journal publishes news items concerning its sponsoring society. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has... Read More

macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells

Image Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell. They are the largest type of leukocyte and can differentiate into macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells. As a part of the vertebrate innate immune system monocytes also influence the process of adaptive immunity. There are at least three subclasses of monocytes in human blood based on their phenotypic receptors. Monocytes are amoeboid in appearance, and have nongranulated cytoplasm.[1], thus are classified as agranulocytes. Containing unilobar nuclei, these cells are one of the types of mononuclear leukocytes which shelter azurophil granules. The archetypal geometry of the monocyte nucleus is ellipsoidal;... Read More

Kupffer –Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages

Image Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer–Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids. They form part of the mononuclear phagocyte system Development. Their development begins in the yolk sac where they differentiate into fetal macrophages. Once they enter the blood stream, they migrate to the fetal liver where they stay. There they complete their differentiation into Kupffer cells.Function apart from clearing any bacteria, red blood cells are also broken down by phagocytic action, where the hemoglobin molecule is split. The globin chains are re-used, while the iron-containing portion, heme, is... Read More


Image The immune system is a composite of the means by which individual organisms maintain their individual integrity in the face of constant interaction with the environment and the continuous internal process of death and removal of host cells that allows for replacement and growth. Both the innate and adaptive divisions of the immune system are critical to the maintenance of homeostasis, physical integrity, and health. Intricately interactive pathways of cells, cell surface receptors, antibodies, and cytokines provide surveillance against invasive pathogens and nonself entities and internal destruction and removal of host senescent cells. The specificity and efficacy of these immune... Read More

Immunology of Barrier Surfaces

Image Barrier surfaces are the first to come into contact with pathogens and have overlapping and unique immunological mechanisms to prevent infection. The lung, gut and skin form major physcial and immunological barriers to infection. These organs are the main portal of entry for a variety of air and food borne pathogens, allergens and other environmental pollutants.  They have the unique ability to maintain homeostasis in the face of constant external provocation.  Once this property is jeopardized, different types of diseases ensue.  Although the underlying mechanisms of some of these diseases are not known, it is now becoming clear that immune... Read More

Immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer

Image Immunodeficiency or immunocompromise is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent. Most cases of immunodeficiency are acquired ("secondary") due to extrinsic factors that affect the patient's immune system. Examples of these extrinsic factors include HIV infection and environmental factors, such as nutrition. In the clinical setting, the immunosuppression by some drugs, such as steroids, can be either an adverse effect or the intended purpose of the treatment. Examples of such use is in organ transplant surgery as an anti-rejection measure and in patients suffering from an overactive immune... Read More

HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system

Image The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that infect humans. Over time they cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. Research has shown (for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples) that HIV is untransmittable through... Read More

Contagiousness varies between diseases

Image A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes. Contagiousness varies between diseases. Non-contagious infections, by contrast, usually require a special mode of transmission between persons or hosts. These include need for intermediate vector species (mosquitoes that carry malaria) or by non-casual transfer of bodily fluid (such as transfusions, needle sharing or sexual contact). The boundary between contagious and non-contagious infectious diseases is not perfectly... Read More

Immunology Laboratory in the evaluation of autoimmune disease

Image The Immunology Laboratory is responsible for laboratory testing and clinical consultation in several broad areas including the evaluation of autoimmune disease, immunodeficiencies, immunoproliferative disorders, and allergy, as well as having responsibility for some aspects of infectious disease serology. Much work is carried out together with the Molecular Diagnostics, Microbiology, Virology and Hematology laboratories to provide seamless consultation and diagnostics for various clinical scenarios. In the evaluation of immunodeficiency, whether congenital or as a result of transplantation, and especially in the clinical trial setting, the laboratory also works in concert with the Immune Monitoring Core Facility. The laboratory is responsible for... Read More

Artificial stimulation of the immune system to treat cancer

Image Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology) is the artificial stimulation of the immune system to treat cancer, improving on the immune system's natural ability to fight the disease. It is an application of the fundamental research of cancer immunology and a growing subspeciality of oncology. Cancer immunotherapy exploits the fact that cancer cells often have tumor antigens, molecules on their surface that can be detected by the antibody proteins of the immune system, binding to them. The tumor antigens are often proteins or other macromolecules (e.g., carbohydrates). Normal antibodies bind to external pathogens, but the modified immunotherapy antibodies bind to the... Read More

Spine Chilling CORONA Virus

Image SARS Covid-19 pandemic has devastated the entire globe. As we are aware of the fact that the corona virus enters our body through the mouth, nose and ears. We are provided with only the information about the overview of the effects of the virus but not in detail. The corona affected patients who have now recovered from the condition might not be having the in detailed information of the precautionary measures to be taken to improve the health condition of their nose and throat and this may lead to further medical complications. Being the source of an Electronic print media,... Read More

Work From Home Option- A root cause of few body ailments

Image SARS Covid-19 pandemic has been demolishing the global economy to a condition like ever before because of the worldwide Lockdown. The governance of the countries all over the globe are mystified with the situation and are baffled to decide on what they should focus on. Whether the dropping economy or the medical condition of the people. Then in one corner of the globe has come up with a solution called “Work From Home”. This is the condition in which people can perform their duties without fail just by remaining at their place in this critical lockdown situation. People are really... Read More

Transplantation and Medical Surgery

Image Transplantation has been a boon for patients (like infants, children, middle aged, aged, etc.) who suffer with various types cancers to lead a health life. Every day on an average 20 people die around the globe. One deceased donor can save up to eight lives through organ donation and can save and enhance more than 100 lives through the lifesaving and healing gift of tissue donation. Organs that can be donated after death are the heart, liver, kidneys, lungs, pancreas and small intestines. Tissues include corneas, skin, veins, heart valves, tendons, ligaments and bones. A healthy person can become a... Read More

Self-rated Masticatory Ability and Independent Life in Community Dwelling Elderly Populations

Image Poor chewing ability is associated with deterioration in the quality of life in older adults. Little is known about how self-rated chewing ability is related with an independent life in communitydwelling older adults. This study examined whether self-rated chewing ability was associated with independent life in communitydwelling older people. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 1,377 subjects over the age of 65 who lived in Kumamoto City, Japan (mean age 79.8 years). Participants divided three groups based on their selfrated chewing ability; good, fair and poor. We assessed needs for support to the community-dwelling older adults with various questionnaires such as,... Read More

Age Dependent Changes of Biological Properties in the Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Bone Marrow Cells in FVB Mice

Image In the last years researchers’ attention has been given to the immunomodulatory properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The question of effectiveness of the stem cell therapy with MSCs from elderly donors is worth studying. Our aim was to compare the potency of bone marrow MSCs in aging. Methods: BM-MSCs were obtained using the standard methods. The following methods were applied: immunophenotyping, colony-forming unit fibroblasts assay, granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cells assay in the semi-agar cultures, directed differentiation, colorimetric method, MTT assay. Results: The stromal progenitor cells increase in their number indicating age-associated elevated ability of the BM-MSCs to proliferation. The BM-MSCs... Read More

A Triplet Baby with Progressive Hydrocephalus and Neurodevelopmental Delay

Image A 4-month old baby girl, one of the Triplets born premature at 34 weeks of gestation was admitted at one of the South Africa’s referral hospital due to severe vomiting, progressive hydrocephalus with neuro-developmental delay. The other two siblings demised shortly after birth. The mother was known HIV positive on the HAART and the baby tested negative using HIV DNA PCR. Three consecutive samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the shunt were sent to the laboratory for analysis. The baby did not have any fever, neck stiffness or seizures. Four consecutive CSF samples showed clear appearance, decreased glucose levels with... Read More

Prostate-specific antigen test

Image Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), is a glycoprotein enzyme encoded in humans by the KLK3 gene. PSA is a member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. It is also believed to be instrumental in dissolving cervical mucus, allowing the entry of sperm into the uterus. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders. PSA is not a unique indicator of prostate cancer, but may also detect prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia. MECHANISM    The physiological function of KLK3... Read More

Cardiopulmonary bypass

Image Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a technique in which a machine temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the patient's body. The CPB pump itself is often referred to as a heart–lung machine or "the pump". Cardiopulmonary bypass pumps are operated by perfusionists. CPB is a form of extracorporeal circulation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is generally used for longer-term treatment. CPB mechanically circulates and oxygenates blood for the body while bypassing the heart and lungs. It uses a heart–lung machine to maintain perfusion to other body organs and tissues while the surgeon works in a bloodless surgical field. The surgeon... Read More

The Effects of 1-Aminobenzotriazole Inhibition on the Formation of Acyl-Glucuronide and Acyl-Glutathione Metabolites in Rat Hepatocytes

Image 1-Aminobenzotriaole (ABT) is a commonly used non-selective mechanism based human and non-human cytochrome P450 (P450) inactivator. However, the direct effects of ABT mediated P450 inhibition on conjugative metabolism, specifically acyl-glucuronide and acyl-glutathione formation has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of ABT induced inhibition of P450 metabolism on the formation of 1-O-acyl-glucuronides of the carboxylic acid-containing drugs gemfibrozil (GEM), tolmetin (TOL), mefenamic acid (MFA), and diclofenac (DCF), and the S-acyl-glutathione formation of MFA and DCF in rat hepatocytes. In vitro incubations of each carboxylic acid-containing drug (100 μM) separately... Read More

Are Both Antidepressant Drug Effects and Test Scores Unspecific?

Image Disappointingly small clinical effects of antidepressant drugs have recently been reemphasized. It is also unclear to what degree the 17 questions in the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression and other questionnaires represent true aspects of depression or rather can be said to measure unspecific symptoms. Methods: Within all clinical study reports concerning citalopram submitted to the Danish Health Authorities before registration in 1988 we identified among 49 studies two studies with placebo groups reporting individual patient scores. A multiple regression analysis was performed by treating questionnaire item no 1 (depressed mood) as the dependent variable and the... Read More

The influence of Hatha yoga as an add-on treatment in major depression on hypothalamicepituitaryeadrenal-axis activity: A randomized trial

Image The impact of Hatha yoga as add-on treatment to quetiapine fumarate extended release (QXR) or escitalopram (ESC) in depressed patients on hypothalamicepituitaryeadrenal (HPA) axis activity was assessed. 60 inpatients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV were randomized for a 5 week treatment with Yoga or not (control group) and with either QXR (300 mg/day) or ESC (10 mg/day). Serial dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone (DEX/CRH) tests were performed to assess HPA axis function. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (21-HAMD) was used weekly.  A more pronounced down regulation of the HPA axis activity due to yoga could not be detected.... Read More

Back and neck pain in office workers.

Image Sitting at a desk is a common source of back and neck discomfort, mostly because you're accommodating instead of the other way around to your workstation. For example, many people are straining to see a computer display that is too distant, too low, too high, too tiny or too dim. This makes healthy posture compromised. The average human head weighs approximately 12 pounds (5.4 kg)—the size of a bowling ball! Your head exerts approximately 23 kilograms of force on your neck when your back is bent to 45 degrees. The pressure impacts your breathing and attitude in addition to straining... Read More

Effects of Yoga on Mental and Physical Health

Image The conceptual background of yoga has its origins in ancient Indian philosophy. There are numerous modern schools or types of yoga (i.e., Iyengar, Viniyoga, Sivananda, etc.), each having its own distinct emphasis regarding the relative contentofphysicalposturesandexercises(asanas),breathing techniques (pranayama), deep relaxation, and meditation practices that cultivate awareness and ultimately more profound states of consciousness. The application of yoga as a therapeutic intervention, which began early in the twentieth century, takes advantage of the various psychophysiological benefits of the component practices. The physical exercises (asanas) may increase patient’s physical flexibility, coordination, and strength, while the breathing practices and meditation may calm and... Read More

Stability Study of Fifteen Synthetic Cannabinoids of Aminoalkylindole Type in Whole Blood, Stored in Vacutainer® Evacuated Glass Tubes

Image The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of blood concentrations of a variety of synthetic cannabinoids when spiked and stored in Vacutainer® evacuated glass tubes. Analysis for synthetic cannabinoids will be of less importance if the compounds disappear during transportation, and thus the previous must be tested for the specific tubes used during sample collection. In this study, tubes were filled with spiked whole blood and analysed after one week of storage at ambient temperature, in a refrigerator (+4°C), and in a freezer (-20°C). And such relevant topic falls under the scope of ... Read More

Methadone Related Deaths: Identifying The Vulnerable Patients

Image Methadone has been used in opioid dependence treatment since the 1960s and is now prescribed also as a chronic pain treatment. Even though its effectiveness has been worldwide assessed, literature reports several cases of death associated with the administration of this drug. Risk factors are still uncertain and the frequent combination with other substances of abuse makes it even more difficult to determine the exact role of methadone in the pathogenesis of fatalities. In this paper the authors present the autopsy findings in a subset of deaths characterized by blood being positive for the methadone only at... Read More

Resident Attrition in Post Graduate Surgical Training

Image Resident attrition is a significant issue facing graduate surgical education, with broad implications for trainees, their families, educators, and society at large. Resident attrition is costly and often may represent a poor initial selection process, inadequate training in medical school, or insufficient feedback and mentoring while the resident is in the postgraduate program. Promoting an environment that encourages mentorship may be an important first step to help residents maximize their professional potential. The successful mentoring of surgical residents is crucial because the entire specialty depends on how today’s residents face tomorrow’s challenges. Residency is known to be a stressful, demanding... Read More

Waardenburg syndrome.

Image Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by at least some degree of congenital hearing impairment and defects in pigmentation that can include bright blue eyes (or one blue eye and one brown eye), white forelock, or light skin patches. The syndrome is caused by mutations in some of several genes that influence neural crest cell division and migration during embryonic development (although some of the genes involved also influence the neural tube). Waardenburg's syndrome has several different forms with some symptom variations, and symptoms can vary among those of the same form. The two common characteristics in all... Read More

Free radicals benefit and harms.

Image Category: Engineering Title: Free radicals benefit and harms. Author: Veronica Description: A radical, in chemistry, is an atom, molecule, or ion with an unpaired valence electron. Such unpaired electrons, with certain exceptions, make radicals extremely chemically reactive. Most radicals dimerize spontaneously. Many organic radicals undergo short lifetimes. Radicals in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, polymerization, plasma chemistry, biochemistry, and many other chemical processes are significant. The radical-generating enzymes produce a significant fraction of natural products. The superoxide and nitric oxide radicals and their reaction products regulate many processes in living organisms, such as regulation of vascular speech, and therefore blood pressure. They... Read More

Management of hepatitis C; Report of the Consensus Meeting at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Hepatology

Image The consensus meeting for the diagnosis, management and treatment for hepatitis C was held in 45th annual meeting for the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH) in June 2009 where the recommendations and informative statements were discussed including organizers and presenters. The Several important informative statements and recommendations have been shown.This was the fourth JSH consensus meeting of hepatitis C, however, the recommendations have not been published in English previously. Thus, this is the first report of JSH consensus of hepatitis C. The rate of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HCV-infected patients in Japan is higher than in the USA,... Read More

the Infectious Complications of Interventional Radiology Based Procedures in Gastroenterology and hepatology

Image Many interventional radiology (IR) procedures are used to manage gastroenterological and hepatobiliary diseases. One of the most common complications of any IR procedure is infection. Literature published in English from January 1960 to August 2010 pertaining to the infectious complications of IR in gastroenterology and hepatology patients was examined by electronic search (Medline and the National Library of Medicine, Embase and the Cochrane Library). Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTC) and biliary drainage, trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS), imaged guided drainage of an intra-abdominal abscess and radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) are the most common IR procedures performed for gastroenterology... Read More

A review of pharmacological properties, pharmacognosy and therapeutic actions of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. (Putranjiva)

Image Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. is a well-known plant which has been ascribed an important role in Ayurvedic texts as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory & anti-rheumatic herb useful in gynaecological and fertility ailments. The pharmacognosy of its leaves, fruits, root and stem bark indicates the presence of many glycosides, saponins, triterpenes and flavonoids. Its leaf extract has been found suitable in biological methods of gold nanoparticle production. During pharmacological analysis, its leaf extract exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. The significant cytotoxicity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in seeds indicate its efficient protection roles against various diseases. Similarly, high antibacterial... Read More


Image Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard commonly known as Rayan/ Khirni is an evergreen tree of Western ghats (Maharashtra) India. Itbelongs to the family Sapotaceae. The fruit of this tree is edible and is available in the markets. While the bark is used in curing fever, flatulence, stomach disorder, etc. by the aboriginals. However, the said plant part is studied for the first time. The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostical studies on the stem bark of the above plant. For Pharmacognostical evaluation macroscopy, microscopy, powder study and histochemical analysis of stem bark were performed. Physicochemical constants such as ash and extractive... Read More

The Valley Hall Effect in MoS2 Transistors

Image Electrons in 2-dimensional crystals with a honeycomb lattice structure possess a new valley degree of freedom (DOF) in addition to charge and spin. Each valley is predicted to exhibit a Hall effect in the absence of a magnetic field whose sign depends on the valley index, but to date this effect has not been observed. Here we report the first observation of this new valley Hall effect (VHE). Monolayer MoS2 transistors are illuminated by circularly polarized light which preferentially excites electrons into a specific valley, and a finite anomalous Hall voltage is observed whose sign is controlled by the helicity... Read More

Device Physics of Solution-Processed Organic Field-Effect Transistors

Image Field-effect transistors based on solution-processible organic semiconductors have experienced impressive improvements in both performance and reliability in recent years, and printing-based manufacturing processes for integrated transistor circuits are being developed to realize low-cost, large-area electronic products on flexible substrates. This article reviews the materials, charge-transport, and device physics of solution-processed organic field-effect transistors, focusing in particular on the physics of the active semiconductor/dielectric interface. Issues such as the relationship between microstructure and charge transport, the critical role of the gate dielectric, the influence of polaronic relaxation and disorder effects on charge transport, charge-injection mechanisms, and the current understanding of mechanisms... Read More

Knee effusion in different age group people.

Image Knee effusion happens when excess synovial fluid builds up in or around the knee joint. This has many common causes including arthritis, ligament damage or meniscus damage, or bursa fluid accumulation, a condition known as pre-patellar bursitis. Signs and symptoms of water on the knee are contingent on the origin of excess synovial fluid build-up in the knee joint. They may include: Pain, Swelling, Stiffness, and Bruising. Swelling causes may involve arthritis, knee ligament damage or an incident in which the body's normal response is to cover the knee with a defensive fluid. There may also be a disorder or... Read More

Molecular genetic testing for identification of changes.

Image Genetic testing also known as DNA testing is used to detect variations in the structure of the DNA gene or chromosome. Genetic testing can also involve measuring the effects of genetic modifications, such as RNA analysis as an output of gene expression, or measuring particular protein production through biochemical analysis. Genetic testing can be used in a medical setting to diagnose or rule out potential genetic disorders, predict risks for particular conditions or obtain knowledge that can be used to tailor medical care based on the genetic makeup of a person. According to the National Institutes of Health, tests are... Read More