A review of pharmacological properties, pharmacognosy and therapeutic actions of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. (Putranjiva)


Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. is a well-known plant which has been ascribed an important role in Ayurvedic texts as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory & anti-rheumatic herb useful in gynaecological and fertility ailments. The pharmacognosy of its leaves, fruits, root and stem bark indicates the presence of many glycosides, saponins, triterpenes and flavonoids. Its leaf extract has been found suitable in biological methods of gold nanoparticle production. During pharmacological analysis, its leaf extract exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. The significant cytotoxicity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in seeds indicate its efficient protection roles against various diseases. Similarly, high antibacterial activity was seen in methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts during evaluation. Putranjiva oil can be blended up to 30% with diesel as an alternative fuel giving similar efficiency and better emissions. Its seed kernel oil also showed potential as a preservative for sissoo seeds against spoilage during storage. 

The fruit pulp contains a large quantity of mannitol, a saponin glucoside and an alkaloid, while the seeds contain fatty oil. Kernel contains an essential oil with mustard smell, isothiocyanate yielding glycosides, glucoputranjivin, glucocochlearin, glucojiaputin and glucocleomin. The seed coat yields triterpene saponins, putranjivoside, β-sitosterol and its glucoside, saponins and pyranosides A-D. Its leaves contain β-amyrin and its esters, putrone, putrol, putranjivic acid, methyl putrajivate, stigmasterol and hydrocarbons, triterpene roxburghonic acid and biflavones, whereas the bark yields triterpenes - friedelin, friedelanol, roxburgholone, putranjivadione, putranjic acid and putric acid. The Leaves also contain saponins A, B, C and D.

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