Chemical imaging (as quantitative – chemical mapping) is the analytical capability to create a visual image of components distribution from simultaneous measurement of spectra and spatial, time information Hyperspectral imaging measures contiguous spectral bands, as opposed to multispectral imaging which measures spaced spectral bands.
The main idea - for chemical imaging, the analyst may choose to take as many data spectrum measured at a particular chemical component in spatial location at time; this is useful for chemical identification and quantification. Alternatively, selecting an image plane at a particular data spectrum (PCA - multivariable data of wavelength, spatial location at time) can map the spatial distribution of sample components, provided that their spectral signatures are different at the selected data spectrum.Imaging instrumentation has three components: a radiation source to illuminate the sample, a spectrally selective element, and usually a detector array (the camera) to collect the images. The data format is called a hypercube. The data set may be visualized as a data cube, a three-dimensional block of data spanning two spatial dimensions (x and y), with a series of wavelengths (lambda) making up the third (spectral) axis. The hypercube can be visually and mathematically treated as a series of spectrally resolved images (each image plane corresponding to the image at one wavelength) or a series of spatially resolved spectra.
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Journal of Diagnostic Techniques and Biomedical Analysis