Energy Management for Battery-Powered Embedded Systems


Portable embedded computing systems require energy autonomy. This is achieved by batteries

serving as a dedicated energy source. The requirement of portability places severe restrictions

on size and weight, which in turn limits the amount of energy that is continuously available to

maintain system operability. For these reasons, efficient energy utilization has become one of the key challenges to the designer of battery-powered embedded computing systems.In this paper, we first present a novel analytical battery model, which can be used for the battery

lifetime estimation. The high quality of the proposed model is demonstrated with measurements and simulations. Using this battery model, we introduce a new “battery-aware” cost function, which will be used for optimizing the lifetime of the battery. This cost function generalizes the traditional minimization metric, namely the energy consumption of the system. We formulate the problem of battery-aware task scheduling on a single processor with multiple voltages. Then, we prove  several important mathematical properties of the cost function. Based on these properties, we propose several algorithms for task ordering and voltage assignment, including optimal idle period insertion to exercise charge recovery. This paper presents the first effort toward a formal treatment of battery-aware task scheduling and voltage scaling, based on an accurate analytical model of the battery behavior.

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