Kupffer –Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages
Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer–Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids. They form part of the mononuclear phagocyte system Development. Their development begins in the yolk sac where they differentiate into fetal macrophages. Once they enter the blood stream, they migrate to the fetal liver where they stay. There they complete their differentiation into Kupffer cells.Function apart from clearing any bacteria, red blood cells are also broken down by phagocytic action, where the hemoglobin molecule is split. The globin chains are re-used, while the iron-containing portion, heme, is further broken down into iron, which is re-used, and bilirubin, which is conjugated to glucuronic acid within hepatocytes and secreted into the bile.
Helmy et al. identified a receptor present in Kupffer cells, the complement receptor of the immunoglobulin family (CRIg). Mice without CRIg could not clear complement system-coated pathogens. CRIg is conserved in mice and humans and is a critical component of the innate immune system.